Sensory memory short term memory working memory
This presentation is the property of its rightful owner.
Sponsored Links
1 / 23

Sensory Memory, Short-Term Memory & Working Memory PowerPoint PPT Presentation


  • 111 Views
  • Uploaded on
  • Presentation posted in: General

Sensory Memory, Short-Term Memory & Working Memory. Psychology 355: Cognitive Psychology Instructor : John Miyamoto 04/22 /2014: Lecture 04-1.

Download Presentation

Sensory Memory, Short-Term Memory & Working Memory

An Image/Link below is provided (as is) to download presentation

Download Policy: Content on the Website is provided to you AS IS for your information and personal use and may not be sold / licensed / shared on other websites without getting consent from its author.While downloading, if for some reason you are not able to download a presentation, the publisher may have deleted the file from their server.


- - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - E N D - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -

Presentation Transcript


Sensory memory short term memory working memory

Sensory Memory,Short-Term Memory & Working Memory

Psychology 355: Cognitive PsychologyInstructor: John Miyamoto04/22/2014: Lecture 04-1

This Powerpoint presentation may contain macros that were used to create the slides. The macros aren’t needed to view the slides. If necessary, you can disable the macros without any change to the presentation.


Outline

Outline

  • Overview of memory systems:Sensory MemoryShort-Term Memory / Working MemoryLong-Term MemoryWhat are they?

  • Sensory memory

  • Short-term memory

  • Memory codes: Phonological code, visual/spatial codes, semantic codes

Lecture ends here?

To Be Discussed Later

Psych 355, Miyamoto, Spr '14


To be discussed later

To Be Discussed Later

Memory Systems

UW: Psych 355, Miyamoto, Spr '14


Memory systems

Memory Systems

  • Memory systems retain perceptions, images, motor patterns, experiences, ideas, thoughts, and intentions that were present at one time but are no longer present.

    Major Functions of Memory Systems

    • Store information over a period of time (seconds; minutes; hours; years)

  • Pass information between different memory systems

    • Encode information (put information into a long-term storage)

    • Retrieve memories or previous learning based on relevance or usefulness in current processing.

  • Manipulate information in working memory

Modal Model of Memory

UW Psych 355, Miyamoto, Spr '14


The modal memory model atkinson shiffrin 1968

The Modal Memory Model(Atkinson & Shiffrin, 1968)

Control Processes

Retrieval

Encoding

SensoryStore

Short-TermStore

Long-TermStore

ExternalWorld

Output:Speech & Actions

Example: Rachel Looks Up a Phone Number

UW Psych 355, Miyamoto, Spr '14


Sensory memory short term memory working memory

What happens as Rachel looks up a phone number?

(a) She looks at the page in the phone book. Perceptual information enters sensory memory.

(b) She pays attention to the relevant phone number. The number is stored in short-term memory (STM).

(c) She dials the phone number while main-taining the number in STM (rehearsal).

Example Continued

UW Psych 355, Miyamoto, Spr '14


Sensory memory short term memory working memory

What happens as Rachel looks up a phone number?

(d) She memorizes the phone number (stores the number in long- term memory or LTM). This process is called encoding.

(e) Days later, she retrieves the number from LTM.

Return to the Modal Memory Model

UW Psych 355, Miyamoto, Spr '14


The modal memory model atkinson shiffrin 19681

The Modal Memory Model (Atkinson & Shiffrin, 1968)

Control Processes

SensoryMemory

Long-TermMemory

Short-TermMemory

Input

Output:Speech & Actions

SUMMARY OF MAJOR MEMORY SYSTEMS

  • Sensory Memory – brief storage of current perceptual inputs.

  • STM – short-term storage of current mental activity

    • STM or Working Memory (WM) has multiple components

  • LTM – long-term storage of experiences, thoughts, facts

    • LTM also has multiple components

Definition of Sensory Memory

UW Psych 355, Miyamoto, Spr '14


Distinction between stm ltm

Distinction Between STM & LTM

  • Standard STM example: Remember the following words:

  • We will wait, perhaps, 15 seconds.Then I’ll ask you to tell me the words that you read in the order that they were written.

  • Another STM example: You know where you are right now and what you are doing there. You are actively processing this information (along with other thoughts).

  • LTM refers to a variety of memory processes that allow retrieval of memories that are not currently preserved in STM.

hand, chair, reed, bottle

hand, chair, reed, bottle

Illustration of LTM from Goldstein Textbook

UW: Psych 355, Miyamoto, Spr '14


Figure 6 1 example of the stm ltm distinction

Figure 6.1: Example of the STM/LTM Distinction

STM

LTM

List of Functions That Are Included in LTM

UW: Psych 355, Miyamoto, Spr '14


Ltm includes

LTM Includes .....

  • Important information about the self and events in the world, but also, ...

  • Trivial information about what has happened in the recent past,

    • e.g., what was the picture at the beginning of the lecture), and also, ....

  • “Semantic” knowledge, e.g., what is an apple, a pencil; which is bigger, a mouse or a moose; etc.

  • How to do things: Tie your shoes, drive a car, dial a phone number, cook a meal, ....

  • Learned associations that are not explicit, e.g., the atmosphere of a dentist’s office makes you feel apprehensive.

Diagram of Modal Memory Model – Next Topic = Sensory Memory

UW: Psych 355, Miyamoto, Spr '14


The modal memory model atkinson shiffrin 19682

The Modal Memory Model (Atkinson & Shiffrin, 1968)

Control Processes

SensoryMemory

Long-TermMemory

Short-TermMemory

Input

Output:Speech & Actions

SUMMARY OF MAJOR MEMORY SYSTEMS

  • Sensory Memory – brief storage of current perceptual inputs.

  • STM – short-term storage of current mental activity

    • STM or Working Memory (WM) has multiple components

  • LTM – long-term storage of experiences, thoughts, facts

    • LTM also has multiple components

Next

Definition of Sensory Memory

UW Psych 355, Miyamoto, Spr '14


Sensory memory

Sensory Memory

  • Example: Sparkler trail or flash image in a dark room.

  • Sensory memory is the retention of the effects of sensory stimulation.Very brief – less then 1 second.

  • Sensory memory is partly due to processes that are close to level of the receptors, but it has a major component that is central.

    • "Central" means at the level of the brain, e.g., the level of the visual cortex for visual stimuli; the level of the auditory cortex for auditory stimuli, etc.

  • What are the capacity limits for visual sensory memory?How much information is stored? How long can it be stored?

Diagram: Where Is the Capacity Limit in the Memory System?

UW Psych 355, Miyamoto, Spr '14


Evidence for a capacity limit on sensory or short term memory

Evidence for a Capacity Limit on Sensory or Short-Term Memory

  • Suppose a letter array is flashed onthe screen to the right.

  • Can you name all of the letters ina specific row, e.g., in Row 3?

ERUPWINQMXTVYSOK

Psych 355, Miyamoto, Spr '14


Evidence for a capacity limit on sensory or short term memory1

Evidence for a Capacity Limit on Sensory or Short-Term Memory

  • Suppose a letter array is flashed onthe screen to the right.

  • Can you name all of the letters ina specific row, e.g., in Row 3?

  • The task is easy if I tell you therow to remember before I flash the letter array. (See letter array to the right.)

    Pay attention to Row 2.

    Answer: P E C Z

ERUPWINQMXTVYSOK

OAWNPECZHXMUVFBI

OAWNPECZHXMUVFBI

Psych 355, Miyamoto, Spr '14


Evidence for a capacity limit on sensory or short term memory2

Evidence for a Capacity Limit on Sensory or Short-Term Memory

  • Suppose a letter array is flashed onthe screen to the right.

  • Can you name all 16 letters in thearray?

  • The task is hard if I ask you to remember all 16 letters in the letter array. (See letter array to the right.)

    What were the 16 letters in the array?

ERUPWINQMXTVYSOK

URVXYZQMICDWLTJN

URVXYZQMICDWLTJN

Psych 355, Miyamoto, Spr '14


Controversy is the capacity limit a limit on sensory memory or short term memory

Controversy: Is the capacity limit a limit on sensory memory, or short-term memory?

  • We have evidence that a capacity limit exists: You can accurately report a pre-selected 4 letters from a 12 letter array, but you can't accurately report all 12 letters.

  • Is there a limit on the capacity of sensory memory?

Transfer too slow?

Limit here?

Limit here?

SensoryMemory

Long-TermMemory

Short-TermMemory

Input

Sperling's Partial Report Paradigm

UW Psych 355, Miyamoto, Spr '14


Sperling s partial report procedure paradigm

Sperling’s Partial Report Procedure (Paradigm)

  • Digression on Terminology: An "experimental paradigm" is a type of experiment. Often there will be many experiments that all use the same paradigm.

  • Purpose of Sperling's partial report paradigm: To determine what are the limits on the capacity of sensory memory.

  • To save lecture time, I will not explain the partial report paradigm in lecture.

    • Students will be responsible for knowing its purpose and its conclusions, but not how it works.

    • Sperling’s partial report paradigm is important for perceptual psychology.Not so important for higher cognitive processes.

Diagram: Conclusion re Capacity of Sensory Memory

UW Psych 355, Miyamoto, Spr '14


Conclusion of partial report experiment

Conclusion of Partial Report Experiment

  • Very large, possibly unlimited capacity.

  • Information decays to 0 within 1 second.

Control Processes

Input

SensoryMemory

Long-TermMemory

Short-TermMemory

Output: Speech/Actions

Diagram Showing Possible Loci of the Capacity Limitation

UW Psych 355, Miyamoto, Spr '14


What are the limits on memory capacity

What Are the Limits on Memory Capacity?

  • Limit on memory capacity refers to a limit on the amount of information that can be held in memory.

    • Not the amount of information that can be input to memory (encoding), and not the amount of information that can be retrieved from memory (retrieval).

      Sensory memory – very large, approximately unlimitedShort-Term memory – ? Long-Term memory – very large, approximately unlimited

  • Next: Introduction to Short-Term Memory & Working Memory

Overview of Short-Term Memory & Working Memory

UW Psych 355, Miyamoto, Spr '14


Overview of short term memory stm working memory wm

Overview of Short-Term Memory (STM) & Working Memory (WM)

Short-Term Memory (STM)

  • Intermediate processing stage between sensory memory & long-term memory

  • Emphasis on quantitative aspects:

    • Limited in amount of information storage.

    • Limited duration of storage.

      Working Memory (WM) – evolved out of the concept of STM

  • Same as above plus some additional ideas

  • Multicomponent system – verbal, visual-spatial, episodic components

  • Emphasis on manipulation of information & control of information flow.

What are the Capacity Limits of STM?

UW Psych 355, Miyamoto, Spr '14


What are the limits on stm capacity

What Are the Limits on STM Capacity?

  • George Miller, "The Magic Number Seven, Plus or Minus Two." What is this about?

    Two Key Questions

  • How many separate pieces of information can be held in STM? (Topic of today's lecture)

  • How long does information last in STM if we don't actively process it? (Next lecture)

Two Questions re Capacity Limits

UW Psych 355, Miyamoto, Spr '14


Sensory memory short term memory working memory

Tuesday, April 22, 2014: The Lecture Ended Here

Psych 355, Miyamoto, Spr '14


  • Login