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Business Process Modeling. Natural Conference Boston Dieter W. Storr Storr Consulting May 2004 [email protected] Business Process Modeling. eEPC extended Event-driven Process Chain. BPR Business Process Re-engineering. PCD Process Chain Diagram. KSD

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Business process modeling l.jpg

Business Process Modeling

Natural Conference Boston

Dieter W. Storr

Storr Consulting

May 2004

[email protected]


Business process modeling2 l.jpg
Business Process Modeling

eEPC

extended Event-driven Process Chain

BPR

Business Process Re-engineering

PCD

Process Chain Diagram

KSD

Knowledge Structure Diagram

VACD

Value-added Chain Diagram

eERM

extended Entity Relationship Model

Dieter W. Storr -- [email protected]


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Business Process ModelingContents

  • What is a Process - Example

  • What is a Business Process - Example

  • Examples of Daily Processes

  • PPT or Visio to Draw a Process

  • ARIS Toolset

  • Descriptive Levels in ARIS

Dieter W. Storr -- [email protected]


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Business Process ModelingContents

  • The ARIS House

  • Divide The Process in Views

  • Each View Has Models

  • Example "Improve Process"

  • Document and Workflow Management

  • Tool-supported Project Management

  • Process-oriented Thinking and Modeling

Dieter W. Storr -- [email protected]


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Business Process Modeling

What is a process?

A series of actions or steps

towards achieving a particular end.

Dieter W. Storr -- [email protected]


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Business Process Modeling

  • Chemical Process

  • Peace Process

  • Troubleshooting Process

  • Legislative Process

  • Thinking Process

  • etc.

Dieter W. Storr -- [email protected]


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Business Process Modeling

Printmaking

Process

Dieter W. Storr -- [email protected]



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Business Process Modeling

What is a business process?

Dieter W. Storr -- [email protected]


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What is a Business Process?

  • Workflow is a term used to describe

    • the tasks,

    • procedural steps,

    • organizations or people involved,

    • required input and output information,

    • and tools needed for each step in a business process.

Dieter W. Storr -- [email protected]


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Business Process Modeling

  • One of the biggest executive frustrations is the gap between the strategic vision and operational execution.

  • For others, it is the gap between the business and the IT department.

Dieter W. Storr -- [email protected]


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Business Process Modeling

  • In order to compensate for these knowledge gaps, managers are increasingly turning to computer models to draft blue prints of their business processes.

Dieter W. Storr -- [email protected]


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Business Process Modeling

  • Software tools that can meet these needs are generally referred to as Business Process Modeling tools.

  • With these tools, managers, analysts and engineers are able to develop diagrams of a company's business processes.

Dieter W. Storr -- [email protected]


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Business Process Modeling

  • Business Process Modeling tools are part of a larger category of Business Process Management (BPM) tools.

Dieter W. Storr -- [email protected]


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Business Process Modeling

  • BPM (as a concept) is the alignment of an organization's processes with the

    • organization's strategic goals,

    • designing and implementing process architectures,

    • establishing process measurement systems that align with organizational goals, and educating and organizing managers so that they will manage processes effectively".

      Source: BP Trends website

Dieter W. Storr -- [email protected]


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Business Process Modeling

  • BPM tools use business process models as a starting point for other automated efforts that include workflow systems, XML Business Process languages and packaged ERP systems.

Dieter W. Storr -- [email protected]


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Business Process Modeling

  • The goal of these tools is to allow management to control processes real time, changing steps or product flow automatically from a computer screen.

Dieter W. Storr -- [email protected]



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Business Process Modeling

  • ARIS Toolset

    • Architecture Integrated Information System

    • Leading Tool (>40,000 licenses worldwide)

    • Used by, for example

  • 50 German universities

  • 40 US and Japanese Universities

Dieter W. Storr -- [email protected]


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ARIS

  • Concept and Software Tool

  • As a concept, ARIS is a framework for the description of commercial enterprises as well as business management application systems.

  • This concept is realized in the form of a software tool

Dieter W. Storr -- [email protected]


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Requirements Concept

IT Concept

Implementation

Descriptive Levels in ARIS

Problem Definition

Information Technology

Dieter W. Storr -- [email protected]


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ARIS

  • To reduce the complexity of the process, all of its representative components are broken down into single views

    • Organization View

    • Data View

    • Function View (executing functions)

    • Resource View (resources of IT)

    • Control or Process View (restores the temporarily lost connections) -- includes the performance view

Dieter W. Storr -- [email protected]


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ARIS and the ViewDivision

Dieter W. Storr -- [email protected]


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The ARIS House

Problem Definition

Problemstellung

Fachkonzept

Requirements Concept

Organization View

DV

IT Concept

-

-

Konzept

Implementierung

Implementation

Requirements Concept

Fachkonzept

Requirements

Concept

Requirements

Concept

IT Concept

IT Concept

IT Concept

Implementation

Implementation

Implementation

Implementierung

Data View

Control (Process) View

Function View

Dieter W. Storr -- [email protected]


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ARIS -- Organization View

  • Enterprises are multilayered socio-technical constructs, subdivided into easily comprehensible units.

  • Once these segments are laid out, rules are determined and order models defined. The result of this order process is called organization, which are divided into

    • organizational and procedural structures

Dieter W. Storr -- [email protected]


Organizational view l.jpg
Organizational View

Organizational Chart with Organizational Units

( = task performers)

Dieter W. Storr -- [email protected]


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Organizational View

Extended Organizational Chart with Positions, which normally are filled by one person

Dieter W. Storr -- [email protected]


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The ARIS House

Problem Definition

Problemstellung

Fachkonzept

Organizational View

Requirements Concept

DV

IT Concept

-

-

Konzept

Implementierung

Implementation

Requirements Concept

Fachkonzept

Requirements

Concept

Requirements

Concept

IT Concept

IT Concept

IT Concept

Implementation

Implementation

Implementation

Implementierung

Data View

Control (Process) View

Function View

Dieter W. Storr -- [email protected]


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ARIS -- Data View

  • Logical data structure of the application case

    • Entities (offers, orders, suppliers)

    • Attributes are concrete characteristics of the entities (consists of)

    • Relations are logical correlations between entities, and are represented in ARIS by connections.

Dieter W. Storr -- [email protected]


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ARIS -- Data View

  • The data view uses for complex cases with highly formalized demands the enhanced Entity Relationship Model (eERM).

Dieter W. Storr -- [email protected]


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Data View

Enhanced Entity Relationship Model (eERM)

A complex structure must be created primarily from entity, attribute, and relationship types

Dieter W. Storr -- [email protected]


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ARIS -- Data View

  • To reduce the complexity of Entity Relationship Models, it is possible to externalize the attributes of entity and relationship types into independent diagrams – the eERM attribute allocation diagrams

Dieter W. Storr -- [email protected]


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Data View

Enhanced Entity Relationship Model (eERM)

Attribute Allocation Diagram

Dieter W. Storr -- [email protected]


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The ARIS House

Problem Definition

Problemstellung

Fachkonzept

Organizational View

Requirements Concept

DV

IT Concept

-

-

Konzept

Implementierung

Implementation

Requirements Concept

Fachkonzept

Requirements

Concept

Requirements

Concept

IT Concept

IT Concept

IT Concept

Implementation

Implementation

Implementation

Implementierung

Data View

Control (Process) View

Function View

Dieter W. Storr -- [email protected]


Aris function view l.jpg
ARIS -- Function View

  • Function is a technical task or activity within an object that is intended to support one or several business goals.

  • To represent objects of the function view and its relationships, ARIS use models known as function tree and objective diagram.

Dieter W. Storr -- [email protected]


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Function View

Function Tree

To reduce the complexity, functions are separated. The function tree shows this hierarchical separation.

Dieter W. Storr -- [email protected]


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Function View

Objective Diagram

(top and sub-objectives)

Defines enterprise goals and constructs objective hierarchies.

Dieter W. Storr -- [email protected]


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The ARIS House

Problem Definition

Problemstellung

Fachkonzept

Organizational View

Requirements Concept

DV

IT Concept

-

-

Konzept

Implementierung

Implementation

Requirements Concept

Fachkonzept

Requirements

Concept

Requirements

Concept

IT Concept

IT Concept

IT Concept

Implementation

Implementation

Implementation

Implementierung

Data View

Control (Process) View

Function View

Dieter W. Storr -- [email protected]


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ARIS -- Control or Process View

  • The complexity reduction is now accomplished but the connections between these views as elements of the process are lost.

  • For this reason, another view will be created: the control or process view, which will describe the connections between the views.

Dieter W. Storr -- [email protected]


Control process view l.jpg
Control (Process) View

“Lean” Event-driven Process Chain (EPC)

A coherent chain of events and functions that represent the logical sequence of a process, while indicating how to control an

operational process.

Dieter W. Storr -- [email protected]


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Control (Process) View

Extended Event-driven Process Chain (eEPC)

eEPC results from a lean EPC, expanded with statements such as

  • input or output data;

  • performing organizational units or positions;

  • utilized application systems; etc..

  • Just a model!

  • Dieter W. Storr -- [email protected]


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    Control (Process) View

    Function Allocation Diagram (FAD)

    Mainly used to represent the input/output data of a function graphically.

    Dieter W. Storr -- [email protected]


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    Control (Process) View

    Value-added Chain Diagram (VACD)Represents the processes of the upper, or strategic, enterprise levels. It serves mainly as an introductory-overview model.

    Dieter W. Storr -- [email protected]


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    The ARIS House w/ Models

    Problem Definition

    Process Chain Diagram (PCD)

    Organizational View

    Requirements Concept

    Organizational Chart

    Implementierung

    Event-driven ProcessChain (eEPC)Function AllocationDiagram (FAD)Value-added Chain Diagram

    Function TreeObjective

    Diagram

    EntityRelationshipModel (eERM)

    Data View

    Control (Process) View

    Function View

    Dieter W. Storr -- [email protected]


    Example improve process l.jpg
    Example “Improve Process”

    • The ordering of books for the university takes far too long -- in the opinion of most of the professors

    • A process chain diagram shall depict the library’s status quo

    • Create a model of the process

    • Determine weak points

    Dieter W. Storr -- [email protected]


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    Example “Improve Process”

    The process:

    • Book requirement occurred

    • Professor must fill out an ordering form

    • He must get: author, title, publisher, price

    • Send application to the budget representative for approval and signature

    Dieter W. Storr -- [email protected]


    Example improve process47 l.jpg
    Example “Improve Process”

    The process:

    • Budgetary funds available?

      • Professor’s book request is rejected

      • Professor receives form with OK

    • Sends application to the library

    • Library examines list of book wholesalers

    • Book will be ordered at a dealer

    Dieter W. Storr -- [email protected]


    Process chain diagram pcd colored columns event function data media to organizational objects l.jpg
    ProcessChainDiagram (PCD)Colored Columns- Event- Function- Data- Media- To- Organizational Objects

    Dieter W. Storr -- [email protected]


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    Example “Improve Process”

    Weak Points:

    • Process without IT support (DB, Internet)

    • Budget representative (autonomous purchasing budgets)

    • Library should not be used to check wholesalers (Internet)

    • Information policy (book ordered or explanation for denial)

    Dieter W. Storr -- [email protected]


    Example improve process50 l.jpg
    Example “Improve Process”

    Examine more closely:

    • Critical bottleneck is the library

    • Data flow “Examine Wholesaler List” should be analyzed more precisely

    • Wholesaler list doesn’t exist at all

    • Dealer card index, Excel file, handwritten list

    • “Guarded” by Ms. Maier, at the library

    Dieter W. Storr -- [email protected]


    Example improve process51 l.jpg
    Example “Improve Process”

    Check and analyze more:

    • Create an eEPC from the PCD

    • Deposit the function “Examine Wholesaler List” in the eEPC

    Dieter W. Storr -- [email protected]



    Example improve process function allocation diagram fad l.jpg
    Example “Improve Process”Function Allocation Diagram (FAD)

    Dieter W. Storr -- [email protected]


    Example improve process54 l.jpg
    Example “Improve Process”

    • Finally, the professor receives his books.

    Dieter W. Storr -- [email protected]


    Document and workflow management l.jpg
    Document and Workflow Management

    • Document Management Systems (DMS) and Workflow Management Systems (WMS) are two typical application systems, which are be able to impel and enable the fundamental optimization of business and supporting processes.

    Dieter W. Storr -- [email protected]


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    Document and Workflow Management

    • Documents

      • Paper-bound documents

      • Digital documents

        • Non-coded information (NCI)

        • Coded information (CI)

    Dieter W. Storr -- [email protected]


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    Document and Workflow Management

    • Processes

      • Capturing documents

      • Classifying documents (indexing)

      • Filing documents (archiving)

      • Investigating documents (search and retrieval)

      • Displaying documents

    Dieter W. Storr -- [email protected]


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    Document and Workflow Management

    An information carrier diagram, for example, can represent these documents along with their relevant attributes in ARIS.

    Dieter W. Storr -- [email protected]


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    Document and Workflow Management

    • The practical migration of ARIS models in workflow models is fundamentally simplified if the workflow software can spur the view concept or the modeling objects of ARIS to as high an extent as possible.

    • Using Ultimus Workflow software from Ultimus Inc., USA

    Dieter W. Storr -- [email protected]



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    Tool-supported Project Execution

    Benefits:

    • Transparent, accessible project structure and data protection (user administration)

    • International utilization by multilingual users

    • Reduction of the method variety by use of method filters

    • Definition of reports and model evaluations

    Dieter W. Storr -- [email protected]


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    Tool-supported Project Execution

    Benefits:

    • Easy integration of project results by "merge" functions

    • Teamwork-oriented support by multi-user ability and client-server concept

    • Integration of models

    • Semantic consolidation of models

    Dieter W. Storr -- [email protected]


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    Process-oriented Thinking and Modeling

    Process flow in a vertical organization

    Dieter W. Storr -- [email protected]


    Process oriented thinking and modeling64 l.jpg
    Process-oriented Thinking and Modeling

    • Vertical department thinking

    • Impaired perception of customer wants and needs

    • Insufficient flexibility to meet changes concerning markets, customers, and products

    • Coordination problems with cross-functional tasks

    Horizontal processes over vertical structures result in numerous disadvantages, which often include

    Dieter W. Storr -- [email protected]


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    Process-oriented Thinking and Modeling

    Horizontal processes over vertical structures result in numerous disadvantages, which often include

    • Coordination problems with cross-functional tasks

    • No "big picture" perspective of the entire process, or of a worker's responsibility to it

    • Incompatibility of information systems (interfaces, media excrescencies, breaks and the like)

    • Missing data integration (inconsistencies, redundancies)

    Dieter W. Storr -- [email protected]


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    Process-oriented Thinking and Modeling

    Dysfunction:

    • Long transmission delays

    • Processing faults

    • Wasteful, overlapping work by employees

    • Interface problems

    • High process costs

    Dieter W. Storr -- [email protected]


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    Process-oriented Thinking and Modeling

    NEW: Process Organization

    is a form in which the structure of organizational units (particularly process teams or function areas) follows the core and support processes.

    Dieter W. Storr -- [email protected]


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    Process-oriented Thinking and Modeling

    New in contrast to the long-recognized structure of sequential operations

    • Priority of processes which are in direct response to a distinctive customer/market demand (market view)

    • Considerations which focus not only on one's own commercial enterprise, but also on the needs of suppliers and customers.

    • Informational networks that make new organization constructs possible, and support proactively as well as retro-actively.

    Dieter W. Storr -- [email protected]


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    Thank You!

    Dieter W. Storr -- [email protected]


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