The French Revolution 1789-1799. What were the Causes of the French Revolution?. French Society on the Eve of the Revolution. Old Regime. Louis XVI. The French Monarchy 1775 - 1793. Marie Antoinette and Louis XVI Pojer. French Society in the 1700s
French Society on the Eve of the Revolution
The French Monarchy1775 - 1793
Marie Antoinette and Louis XVI
The Clergy – First Estate 1% of the population
The Nobility- Second Estate
2% of the population
97% of the French population
“By 1786 banks began to refuse to lend money to the ailing French government. The economy suffered a further blow when crop failures caused bread shortages in 1788 and 1789.”
“The privileged First and Second Estates refused to aid the government. Louis was forced to summon the Estates General. This was the only way he could get additional taxes.”
Convening the Estates General May, 1789
Last time it was called into session was 1614!
The Suggested Voting Pattern:Voting by Estates
Louis XIV insisted that voting be based on the Estates with each Estate receiving one vote.
The Number of Representativesin the Estates General: Vote by Head!
1stWhat is the Third Estate?Everything!
2nd What has it been heretofore in the political order? Nothing!
3rd What does it demand? To become something therein!
Phase One (The Bourgeoisie Revolution)
June 20, 1789
July 14, 1789
A rumor was spread that the king was planning a military coup against the National Assembly. The people of Paris decided to arm themselves.
7 guards killed.
It held 7 prisoners 5 ordinary criminals and 2 madmen.
Rumors spread that the feudal nobility [the aristos] were sending hired brigands to attack peasants. Peasants armed themselves and drove the feudal landlords off their property.
National Assembly1789 - 1791
August Decrees 1789The Renunciation of Aristocratic Privileges!
August 26, 1789
March of the Women to VersaillesOctober, 1789
A spontaneous demonstration of Parisian women demanding bread
The women forced the Royal Family to return to Paris with them.
The king and his family was forced to move to Paris and reside at the Tuileries Palace. Anti-royalists watched the royal family’s every move. The National Assembly moved to Paris a few days later.
“The Civil Constitution of the Clergy was a measure which placed the French Church under government control.”
Pope Pius VI[1775-1799]
Confiscate Church Lands (1790)
One of the most controversial decisions of the entire revolutionary period.
A Bourgeois (Middle Class) Government
A Bourgeois (Middle Class) Government
“Active” Citizen:A male who paid taxes amounting to three days labor could vote.
A newly electedLEGISLATIVE ASSEMBLY.
GOAL Make sure that the country was not turned over to the mob!
Louis XVI “Accepts” the Constitution and the National Assembly.
Phase Two (The Convention and the Reign of Terror)
“Fearing that Austria would try to reinstate Louis, the revolutionary leaders declared war on Austria. War threw France into upheaval. The king and his family were imprisoned and the radicals backed by the Paris crowds took over the Assembly and called for a National Convention to create a new constitution. They extended the vote to all males.”
The National Convention(September, 1792)
The first act of the National Convention was to abolish the monarchy.
The National Convention (The Republic)
The Causes of Instability in France1792 - 1795
The Plain(swing votes)
The Politics of the National Convention (1792-1795)
Jacobin Meeting House
The Sans-Culottes: The Parisian Working Class Supporters of the Jacobins
“After Louis’ execution, the monarchs of Europe feared democratic revolutions could spread from France. In January, 1793 the monarchs of Great Britain, the Netherlands, Spain and Sardinia joined Austria and Prussia in alliance against revolutionary France.”
“The National Convention took steps to prevent foreign invasion. It formed the Committee of Public Safety to direct the entire war effort. It also adopted conscription or a draft to require military service of men between the ages of eighteen and forty-five.”
“Overwhelmed by enemies at home and abroad the Jacobins set out to crush all opposition within France. This effort was known as the Reign of Terror, and it lasted from July, 1793 to July,1794.”
Terror is nothing other than justice, prompt, severe, inflexible. -- Robespierre
Let terror be the order of the day!
The last guillotine execution in France was in 1939!
The Death of Marat”by Jacques Louis David, 1793
The Revolution ConsumesIts Own Children!
Robespierre Lies WoundedBefore the Revolutionary Tribunal that will order him to be guillotined, 1794.
Danton Awaits Execution, 1793
“The Fall of Robespierre began on March 30, 1794 when he sent his fellow citizens and friends Danton and Desmoulins to the guillotine.
After this event, members of the Convention and the Committee eyed Robespierre with suspicion. Robespierre was the sole person who decided between wrong and right. The Convention saw Robespierre as a tyrant and his Republic of Virtue as authoritarian. A faction of the Convention banded together to destroy Robespierre before he destroyed the remaining members of the French government.”
The Arrest of Robespierre sent his fellow citizens and friends Danton and Desmoulins to the guillotine.
The Execution of Robespierre sent his fellow citizens and friends Danton and Desmoulins to the guillotine.
Phase Three (The Conservative Reaction)