How to set up and manage a project
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How to set up and manage a Project ?. Niten Chandra, IAS Joint Secretary Ministry of Rural Development Government of India [email protected] Mob: 9958445904. Five Key Phases of Project Management. Set up and Contract Plan Project Implement Monitor & Report Progress

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How to set up and manage a project

How to set up and manage a Project ?

Niten Chandra, IAS

Joint Secretary

Ministry of Rural Development

Government of India

[email protected]

Mob: 9958445904


Five key phases of project management

Five Key Phases of Project Management

  • Set up and Contract

  • Plan Project

  • Implement

  • Monitor & Report Progress

  • Complete & Review

Niten Chandra, JS, MoRD, GoI


Set up contract

Set up & Contract

  • Setting up Process

  • Develop Project Brief

  • Write Issue Statement

  • Define Mission & Key Objectives

  • Specify Outputs & Timings

  • Set Scope & Limits

  • Clarify Roles

  • Develop Personal Contracts

  • Develop Project Contract

Niten Chandra, JS, MoRD, GoI


Setting up process

Setting up Process

  • Formulate issues, mission, objectives, output and timing

  • Identify and engage with Stakeholders, beneficiaries, clients and customers

  • Ascertain cross-departmental links

  • Assess the feasibility of project

  • Determine the principal means of achieving project mission and primary objectives

  • Work out the resources it will need and who will provide them

  • Recommend how far its scope and authority should extend

  • Formulate the best strategy for executing the project

  • Select and appoint team members

  • Arrange training to ensure common approach and understanding

  • Formulate and sign the contract

Niten Chandra, JS, MoRD, GoI


Develop project brief

Develop Project Brief

Purpose :

  • To brief project team on its task

  • Helps in establishment of a project team

  • Provides preliminary terms of reference from which a project contract can be derived

Niten Chandra, JS, MoRD, GoI


How to set up and manage a project

Sample Project Brief

Issue Statement: Chronic inability of CAPART to meet its goals, poor networking, weak focus on rural community, entrenchment of malpractices and erosion of credibility

Project Title: Restructuring of CAPART

Mission: To enable CAPART meet its goal of rural prosperity through engagement with government and voluntary agencies

Primary Objective: Change organizational structure within 3 months

Required Outputs: Implementation plan, MPR, Notes for decisionTiming

Scope & Limits: Only MoRD & CAPART to be involved, no engagement of professionals

Budget: Rs 25 lakhs

Authorization procedure: Executive Committee & General Body, MRD

Cost Center: CAPART

Project termination date: 31/May/12.

Members: DG(CAPART), JS (CAPART), Dir/US (CAPART)Support Team

SignedAdministrative Department

Date

Niten Chandra, JS, MoRD, GoI


Write issue statement

Write issue statement

It is a clear description of what the problem is and what needs to be improved

Niten Chandra, JS, MoRD, GoI


Define vision mission and objectives

Define Vision, Mission and Objectives

  • Vision provides the overall goal or purpose of the project. It defines how it will look like when we get there. It clarifies where the project is trying to get to.

  • Mission is what should be achieved in order to get to the vision.

  • Objectives are the means by which mission will be achieved.

Niten Chandra, JS, MoRD, GoI


Specify required outputs and timing

Specify Required Outputs and Timing

  • Reduces misunderstanding between owner and executant of project

  • Provides a basis for assessing progress

  • Provides means for establishing extent to which it has fulfilled project requirements

  • Output should include:

    • Plan to achieve mission

    • Milestones with dates

    • MIS

    • Interim progress report

    • Measures of progress

    • Audit report, UC, Evaluation study, documentation (video), etc.

    • Timing : online, monthly, quarterly, annual, etc.

Niten Chandra, JS, MoRD, GoI


Set scope limits

Set scope & limits

  • These prescribe the DONTs

  • Budget constraint

  • Territorial limits

  • Performance standard / target

  • Product type

  • Procedures or process standards

  • Limit of authority or delegation

  • It prevents team from straying into areas not allowed or waste effort on low priorities.

  • Limits have to be carefully judged so that they do not make objectives unrealistic.

Niten Chandra, JS, MoRD, GoI


Agree project budget

Agree project budget

  • Identify cost heads:

    • Manpower

    • Materials

    • Equipment

    • Premises

    • Expenses

    • Subcontractors: lawyers, auditors, consultants, etc.

    • Reorganization costs

  • Quantify project benefits over its life

  • Clarify authorization level and cost center.

Niten Chandra, JS, MoRD, GoI


Clarify roles

Clarify roles

Getting the right players involved in clearly defined roles ensures the necessary experience, skills and personal qualities are available to the project. Without these the project is unlikely to succeed.

Niten Chandra, JS, MoRD, GoI


Develop personal contracts

Develop personal contracts

  • Contracts clarify what is expected and who is doing what.

  • It helps all parties in a project to define their roles and reach agreement with each other on how to work together.

Niten Chandra, JS, MoRD, GoI


Develop project contract

Develop project contract

  • Encourages team to feel a genuine party to the contract

  • Generates ownership of the means or the how

  • Helps to ensure project brief is appropriate

  • It should be signed to demonstrate commitment & understanding

Niten Chandra, JS, MoRD, GoI


Plan what to do

Plan What To Do

  • Use a Project Management Plan

  • Decide what to do

  • Develop implementation plans

    • Work breakdown structure

    • Key Activity & Task Plans

    • Responsibility Charts

    • Resource Requirement List

    • Cost Breakdown Structure

  • Produce a schedule

    • Gantt Chart

    • Critical Path Analysis

    • Draft Contingency Plans

  • Niten Chandra, JS, MoRD, GoI


    Use a project management plan

    Use a Project Management Plan

    • This sets out five main phases in the life of a project and their key steps, with scheduled completion dates and assigned responsibilities:

      • Set up & contract, Plan project, Implement, Monitor & report progress, Complete & Evaluate

    Niten Chandra, JS, MoRD, GoI


    Decide what to do

    Decide what to do

    • Collect data

      • Current processes

      • Performance standard

      • Measuring waste, errors

      • Surveying customers/ suppliers, etc.

      • Efficiency & productivity

    • Analyse root causes

    • Find best solutions

    • Check sheets

    • Data Display

    • Asking why

    • Brainstorming

    • Cause & effect analysis

    • Paired comparisons

    • Process mapping

    • Time cost analysis

    • Pareto analysis

    • Cost Benefit analysis

    • Decision Chart

    • Priorities Grid

    Niten Chandra, JS, MoRD, GoI


    Develop implementation plans

    Develop Implementation Plans

    Niten Chandra, JS, MoRD, GoI


    Develop implementation plans1

    Develop Implementation Plans

    Niten Chandra, JS, MoRD, GoI


    Develop implementation plans2

    Develop Implementation Plans

    Niten Chandra, JS, MoRD, GoI


    Responsibility chart

    Responsibility Chart

    Responsibility Types:

    • P: Prime Responsibility

    • W: Does Work

    • A: Advises

    • I: Provides Input

    • D: Takes Decision

    • C: Must be consulted

    • IF: Must be Informed

    Niten Chandra, JS, MoRD, GoI


    Resource requirement list materials manpower systems equipment specialist help funds etc

    Resource Requirement List (Materials, manpower, systems, equipment, specialist help, funds, etc.)

    Niten Chandra, JS, MoRD, GoI


    Cost breakdown

    Cost Breakdown

    • Record the dates for expenditure authorized, invoice received and payment made.

    Niten Chandra, JS, MoRD, GoI


    Produce a schedule

    Produce a Schedule

    • Gantt or Bar Chart

    • Critical Path Method (CPM)

    • Programme or Performance Evaluation & Review Technique (PERT)

    Niten Chandra, JS, MoRD, GoI


    Contingency planning

    Contingency Planning

    Project:Date:

    Prepared by:

    Niten Chandra, JS, MoRD, GoI


    Implement

    Implement

    Implementation is about getting things done according to plan and ensuring that a number of things are in place to support the activities and manage the resultant changes.

    Niten Chandra, JS, MoRD, GoI


    Checklist for successful implementation

    Checklist for Successful Implementation

    • Community / Client Focus : Is the focus on community / client and the end users’ views and needs being attended to through regular check and feedback.

    • An Effective Communication System: knowing what should be communicated to whom, by whom, when, how, what outcomes are required, etc. Are goals, means, roles, responsibility, procedures, rules, guidelines and instructions clear to people ?

    • EffectiveTeamwork: what training, support and review mechanisms are in place. Is the Responsibility Chart working ? Do frictions persist ?

    • Working conditions: are the working conditions of team members adequate ? What incentives and awards are given to performers?

    • Information systems: Have measures been agreed ? How will data be captured, who will do it ? How will it link into the communications system? Is the protocol for sharing information with public in place ?

    • Progress Monitoring: Is the planned frequency and format working ? Are deviations analysed and corrective actions taken?

    • Risks and contingency planning: Have risks been identified and contingency planning done? What are the unforeseen problems and their likely impact ? How will they be dealt with ?

    • Legal, etc: Is full compliance to all legal, health, safety, administrative, audit and financial procedures being achieved ?

    Niten Chandra, JS, MoRD, GoI


    Monitor report progress

    Monitor & Report Progress

    • Is work being done within the estimates ?

    • Will each activity be completed within schedule ?

    • Is quality of work within specification?

    • Are expected results being achieved ?

    • Are there other changes or special problems ?

    Corrective Action

    MIS should be :

    Focussed on priorities

    Responsive i.e initiates corrective action

    Timely – no undue delays

    User friendly

    Flexible

    Simple & Clear

    • Clarifying roles & removing confusion

    • Rearranging the workload

    • Resolving disputes

    • Putting in more resources or effort

    • Moving target completion date(s)

    • Lowering targets

    Feedback (MIS)

    Results Chain

    Niten Chandra, JS, MoRD, GoI


    Progress report

    Progress Report

    • Current Project Status: Cost, time & quality

    • Future Status: likely deviations

    • Critical Tasks status:

    • Risk Assessment:

    • Information relevant to other projects/States : lessons learnt, best practices

    Niten Chandra, JS, MoRD, GoI


    Project log

    Project Log

    Purpose: Monitor project process in a qualitative way to deal with important management issues and to generate useful information for future project improvement

    Niten Chandra, JS, MoRD, GoI


    How to set up and manage a project

    Financial

    Administrative

    MIS

    Monitoring & Evaluation

    Performance Audit

    Incentives

    Training

    Coordination

    Discipline

    Stress Management

    Niten Chandra, JS, MoRD, GoI


    Training learning stages

    Training & Learning Stages

    • We come to know about something which is new and different

    • We understand the possible applications of the new idea or information

    • We accept the idea as useful, a desirable option and are willing to make the changes

    • We are able to apply the new learning.

    Niten Chandra, JS, MoRD, GoI


    Management competencies

    Management Competencies

    Niten Chandra, JS, MoRD, GoI


    Job description with performance plan behavioural criteria

    Job Description with Performance Plan & Behavioural Criteria

    Niten Chandra, JS, MoRD, GoI


    Planning for performance

    Planning for Performance

    Niten Chandra, JS, MoRD, GoI


    Reviewing performance

    Reviewing Performance

    Niten Chandra, JS, MoRD, GoI


    Aligning members within an organization

    Aligning Members within an Organization

    Achievement of Department’s mission & objectives depends on how individuals within an organization are aligned with the mission & objectives. There are essential attributes that may be fostered in individuals to ensure proper alignment of individuals within a Department by building appropriate performance culture.

    Niten Chandra, JS, MoRD, GoI


    Checking for attributes

    Checking for Attributes

    Niten Chandra, JS, MoRD, GoI


    Building performance culture in an organization

    Building Performance Culture in an Organization

    • Set short-term, challenging, motivating and realistic goals

    • Provide support for performance

    • Invite people to workshops and seminars to present success tales and share experience with others at agreed intervals

    • Appreciate & reward performers

    • Investigate problems with non-performers

    • Get together performers and non-performers to share the key success drivers, provide solutions & make the tasks doable for the non-performers.

    • Provide additional support, training to non-performers and lower their targets to make them achievable

    • Let non-performers attain the respect for showing performance, taste the joy of performance, and have the anxiety to avoid non-performance

    Niten Chandra, JS, MoRD, GoI


    How can leader solve problems of team members

    How can Leader solve problems of team members

    Niten Chandra, JS, MoRD, GoI


    Outline plan for performance discussion

    Outline Plan for Performance Discussion

    • Warm up

    • Job Responsibilities

      • What do you see as your major responsibilities at present

      • What are the priorities ? Why ?

      • What would you change about your project?

      • How could your time and talents be used better?

    • Performance goals

      • Overall, how do you we feel about the targets we set?

      • Have any of them proved to be inappropriate? Why?

    • Job accomplishments

      • How do you feel the job is doing?

      • What has interested you most in your project in the past?

      • What have been the major accomplishments?

      • Where do you think you are being most effective in your project?

    • Areas for Improvement

      • What disappoints or frustrates you most about your project at the present time?

      • Where do you feel least effective?

      • What can we do to increase your effectiveness

      • What help or support can we give you?

    • Assessment

    • Plans for Improvement

      • This should be discussed and agreed and not imposed

    • Conclusion

      • Summarize the discussion

      • Agree on future action

      • Describe what will happen with the results of the review

      • Thank everyone for their time and contribution

    Niten Chandra, JS, MoRD, GoI


    Post completion evaluation capitalising on learning

    Post-Completion Evaluation : Capitalising on Learning

    • Lessons Learnt

    • Things which could have been done better

    • Leadership and motivation

    • Enthusiasm and passion of the team members

    • Clarity & focus on goals

    • Coordination among interdependent units/departments

    • Quality of communication- internal & external, flow of information

    • Efficiency, effectiveness, flexibility, freedom, trust

    • Quality of support received

    • Authority, responsibility & delegation

    • Resourcing issues

    • Robustness and value of contract

    • Problems of personal time management

    Niten Chandra, JS, MoRD, GoI


    Thank you

    Thank You

    Niten Chandra, JS, MoRD, GoI


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