Sound principles
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Sound Principles. VCC West Philly Sound Team Training. Frequency. Frequency determines the pitch of a sound Higher frequencies make higher notes Frequency is measured in Hertz (Hz) or cycles per second. Common Frequency Bands: Low: 20 Hz – 250 Hz center: 100 Hz

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Sound principles

Sound Principles

VCC West Philly Sound Team

Training


Frequency

Frequency

  • Frequency determines the pitch of a sound

  • Higher frequencies make higher notes

  • Frequency is measured in Hertz (Hz) or cycles per second

  • Common Frequency Bands:

  • Low: 20 Hz – 250 Hz center: 100 Hz

  • Mid: 250 Hz – 5 kHz center: 1 kHz

  • High: 5 kHz – 20 kHz center: 10 kHz


Amplitude

Amplitude

  • Amplitude determines the volume or intensity of a sound wave

  • Sound intensity is measured in decibels (dB)

  • dB is a measurement relative to a reference sound level

  • A 10 dB sound is 10 times the intensity of the reference level

  • A 20 dB sound is 100 times the intensity of the reference level

  • A 30 dB sound is 1000 times the intensity of the reference level

  • A 0 dB sound has the same intensity as the reference level


Basic sound system

Basic Sound System


Input sources

Input Sources

Microphones

  • Types – dynamic, condenser

  • Patterns – omnidirectional, cardioid, supercardioid

    Instruments

  • Guitar, piano, bass, drums

    Other

  • CD player, iPod, computer

omnidirectional

supercardioid

cardioid


Mixing console

Mixing Console

  • Mixes, tunes, and controls the destination and volume of audio signals

  • Combines input signals to form outputs for main and monitor speakers


Power amplifier

Power Amplifier

  • Take signals and amplify them so they can drive speakers

  • Power of an amplifier is measured in Watts

  • Make sure that the amplifier matches the impedance of the speakers being used

  • Watch for clipping or distortion

Clipping


Speakers

Speakers

Main Speakers

  • Provide sound for audience

    Monitor Speakers

  • Provide sound for musicians on stage

  • Speakers are rated in terms of impedance. Common values are 2 Ohms, 4 Ohms, and 8 Ohms


Cables and connectors

XLR

1/8” (mini-plug)

RCA

1/4”

Cables and Connectors

  • Connect all the different components of the sound system

    Types of Cables

  • Unbalanced – Short cables connecting instruments to amps/snake

  • Balanced – Longer cables carrying line-level signals to and from mixer

  • Unshielded – Thicker cables carrying amplified signals from amp to speakers


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