American Policy in the Wake of September 11. AIRPORTS. *Installed bulletproof and locked cockpit doors *September 13, 2001 prohibit any type of knife in secured airport areas and on airplanes
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American Policy in the Wake of September 11
*Installed bulletproof and locked cockpit doors
*September 13, 2001 prohibit any type of knife in secured airport areas and on airplanes
*Beginning in 2006, passengers may not carry liquids, gels and aerosols in quantities greater than 3 ounces past security screening, and all bottles must be placed in a clear plastic bag and sent through screening separately.
*The airport checkpoint screening has been significantly tightened since 2001. Many passengers are patted-down and thoroughly checked with a hand-held metal detector.
*On September 11, some hijackers lacked proper ID, yet they were able to board. All passengers generally must now have valid identification
"Hate Crime Primer"
Since October 7, 2001, when the current war in Afghanistan began, 775 detainees have been brought to Guantánamo. Of these, most have been released without charge or transferred to facilities in their home countries. As of July 2010, 176 detainees remain at Guantanamo
-In the United States the use of the phrase "enemy combatant" may also mean an alleged member of al Qaeda or the Taliban being held in detention by the U.S. government as part of the war on terror.
-a category of persons who do not qualify for prisoner-of-war status under the Geneva Conventions.
Goal is to prepare for, prevent, and respond to domestic emergencies, particularly terrorism.
DHS – Created Nov, 2001
Controls: Immigration, Naturalization, Customs, Border Patrol, Coast Guard, TSA
Largest reorganization of government in history.
USA PATRIOT ACT
Uniting and Strengthening America by Providing Appropriate Tools Required to Intercept and Obstruct Terrorism Act of 2001
It allows secret searches and wiretapping of telephones for an investigation whose primary purpose is gathering intelligence for a criminal investigation of U.S. citizens and non-citizens without establishing probable cause that a crime has occurred.
“The cause we have chosen is just. The course we have chosen is constitutional. The course we have chosen is preserving lives. Because we are safer, our liberties are more secure.” – John Ashcroft (former US Attorney General and chief architect of the Patriot Act.
In the 2 years following September 11 attacks, Ashcroft claims that more than 3,000 suspected terrorists were arrested globally due to the “Patriot Act.”
On December 16, 2005, the New York Times reported that, under White House pressure and with an executive order from President George W. Bush, the National Security Agency, in an attempt to thwart terrorism, had been tapping the telephones of select individuals in the U.S. calling persons outside the country, without obtaining warrants from the United States Foreign Intelligence Surveillance Court, a secret court created for that purpose under the Foreign Intelligence Surveillance Act (FISA)
Bush Doctrine 2.0
Why? Fears that Saddam Hussein had WMDs, harbored terrorists, and had somehow supported Osama bin Laden, Al Qaeda, and the Taliban.
In reality, no evidence was found to support these premises.
The war lasted 7 years, with the last combat troops withdrawn Sept. 2010.
More than 4,400 Americans troops died in combat and tens of thousands were wounded.
At least 100,000 Iraqi civilians killed
Tens of thousands of militants were killed.
Cost to US taxpayer - $750 billion
It is alleged that the CIA runs a secret global abduction and internment operation of suspected terrorists, known as “extraordinary rendition”, which since 2001 has captured about 3,000 people and transported them around the world. It has been alleged that torture has been employed with the knowledge or acquiescence of the Governments of the United States and the United Kingdom. Condoleezza Rice, then United States Secretary of State, said in an April 2006 radio interview that the United States does not transfer people to places where it is known they will be tortured.
Abu Ghraib: United States soldier Spc. Graner prepares to punch restrained prisoners
Enhanced interrogation techniques or alternative set of procedures were terms adopted by the George W. Bush administration in the United States to describe interrogation methods used by US military intelligence and the Central Intelligence Agency (CIA) to extract information from individuals captured in the "War on Terror" soon after the September 11 attacks in 2001.
Used by the CIA
1. Attention Grab
2. Attention Slap
3. Belly Slap
4. Long Time Standing: This technique is described as among the most effective. Prisoners are forced to stand, handcuffed and with their feet shackled to an eye bolt in the floor, for more than 40 hours
5. Cold Cell: The prisoner is left to stand naked in a cell kept near 50 degrees Fahrenheit (10 degrees Celsius), while being regularly doused with cold water.
The following techniques were being used by the U.S. military:
2. Loud music, and light control
3. Environmental manipulation
4. Sleep deprivation/adjustment
5. Stress positions
6. 20-hour interrogations
7. Controlled fear (muzzled dogs)
On May 7, 2004, United States Secretary of Defense Donald Rumsfeld made the following statements before the Senate Armed Services Committee: These events occurred on my watch. As secretary of defense, I am accountable for them. I take full responsibility. It is my obligation to evaluate what happened, to make sure those who have committed wrongdoing are brought to justice, and to make changes as needed to see that it doesn't happen again. I feel terrible about what happened to these Iraqi detainees. They are human beings. They were in U.S. custody. Our country had an obligation to treat them right. We didn't do that. That was wrong. To those Iraqis who were mistreated by members of U.S. armed forces, I offer my deepest apology. It was un-American. And it was inconsistent with the values of our nation. —Donald Rumsfeld,