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二、解离平衡和沉淀反应 PowerPoint PPT Presentation


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二、解离平衡和沉淀反应. 一、实验目的. 1 .掌握并验证同离子效应对弱电解质解离平衡 的影响; 2 .学习缓冲溶液的配制,并验证其缓冲作用; 3 .掌握并验证浓度、温度对盐类水解平衡的影响; 4. 了解沉淀的生成和溶解条件以及沉淀的转化。. 二、实验原理. 弱电解质溶液中加入含有相同离子的另一强电解质时,使弱电解质的解离程度降低,这种效应称为同离子效应。

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二、解离平衡和沉淀反应

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3888774


3888774

1

2

3

4.


3888774

pHpHHAcNaAc


3888774

PbI2

PbI2 () Pb2+ + 2I -

= c(Pb2+) c(I -)2

Pb(Ac)2KI

1c(Pb2+) c(I -)2

2c(Pb2+) c(I -)2

3c(Pb2+) c(I -)2


3888774


3888774

100 mL

HAc (0.1molL-10.10 molL-1)HCl (0.1 molL-12 molL-1)NH3H2O (0.1 molL-12 molL-1)NaOH (0.1 molL-1)NH4Ac(s)NaAc (1 molL-1,0.1 molL-1)NH4Cl (1 molL-1)BiCl3 (0.1 molL-1) MgSO4 (0.1 molL-1)

ZnCl2 (0.1 molL-1) Pb (Ac)2 (0.01 molL-1)

Na2S (0.1 molL-1)KI (0.02 molL-1)pH


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12mL 0.1 molL-1

NH4Ac

NH3H2O NH4+ + OH-

1mL 0.2 mol L-1NH4Ac

C(OH-), PH


3888774

22mL 0.1 molL-1 HAc

NH4Ac


3888774

310mL 0.1 molL-1 HAc10 m0.1 molL-1 NaAcpHpH100.1 molL-1 HClpH100.1 molL-1 NaOHpH

10 mL


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20.1 molL-1BiCl31mL2 molL-1HCl

BiCl3+H2O BiOCl+2HCl

2

Fe(NO3)39H2O

Fe3++ H2O

Fe(OH)3+ H+


3888774

3

11mL0.1 molL-1MgSO42 molL-11 molL-1 NH4Cl

Mg2++OH-Mg(OH )2

Q>Ksp

Mg(OH )2 +NH4+ Mg2++ NH3H2O

220.1 molL-1ZnCl220.1 molL-1 Na2S2 molL-1HCl


3888774

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100.01 molL-1 Pb(Ac)220.02 molL-1KI0.1 molL-1 Na2S


3888774

pH

1

2

3pH


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