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World Meteorological Organization Working together in weather, climate and water. WMO. WMO Standards NOAA System Of Systems Workshop October 06, 2009. Fredrick R. Branski President of CBS. WMO/OBS. www.wmo.int. What is the WMO? (World Meteorological Organization).

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World Meteorological Organization Working together in weather, climate and water

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World meteorological organization working together in weather climate and water l.jpg

World Meteorological OrganizationWorking together in weather, climate and water

WMO

WMO Standards

NOAA System Of Systems Workshop

October 06, 2009

Fredrick R. Branski

President of CBS

WMO/OBS

www.wmo.int


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What is the WMO?(World Meteorological Organization)

  • A specialized agency of the United Nations

  • The UN system's authoritative voice on the state and behavior of the Earth's atmosphere, its interaction with the oceans, the climate it produces and the resulting distribution of water resources

  • 188 Member States

  • NWS is the U.S. representative

  • to the WMO


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FM SYSTEM OF CODE FORMS - Traditional Alphanumeric Codes (TAC)

FM 12–XII Ext. SYNOP Report of surface observation from a fixed land station

FM 13–XII Ext. SHIP Report of surface observation from a sea station

FM 14–XII Ext. SYNOP MOBIL Report of surface observation from a mobile land station

FM 15–XIII Ext. METAR Aerodrome routine meteorological report (with or without trend forecast)

FM 16–XIII Ext. SPECI Aerodrome special meteorological report (with or without trend forecast)

FM 18–XII BUOY Report of a buoy observation

FM 20–VIII RADOB Report of ground radar weather observation

FM 22–IX Ext. RADREP Radiological data report (monitored on a routine basis and/or in case of accident)

FM 32–XI Ext. PILOT Upper-wind report from a fixed land station

FM 33–XI Ext. PILOT SHIP Upper-wind report from a sea station

FM 34–XI Ext. PILOT MOBIL Upper-wind report from a mobile land station

Rec. 22 (CBS-89), approved by the President of WMO and Res. 8 (EC-LI)

FM 35–XI Ext. TEMP Upper-level pressure, temperature, humidity and wind report from a fixed land station

FM 36–XI Ext. TEMP SHIP Upper-level pressure, temperature, humidity and wind report from a sea station


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FM SYSTEM OF CODE FORMS - Traditional Alphanumeric Codes (TAC)

FM 37–XI Ext. TEMP DROP Upper-level pressure, temperature, humidity and wind report from a sonde released by carrier balloons or aircraft

FM 38–XI Ext. TEMP MOBIL Upper-level pressure, temperature, humidity and wind report from a mobile land station

FM 39–VI ROCOB Upper-level temperature, wind and air density report from a land

rocketsonde station

FM 40–VI ROCOB SHIP Upper-level temperature, wind and air density report from a rocketsonde station on a ship

FM 41–IV CODAR Upper-air report from an aircraft (other than weather reconnaissance aircraft)

FM 42–XI Ext. AMDAR Aircraft report (aircraft meteorological data relay)

FM 44–V ICEAN Ice analysis

FM 45–IV IAC Analysis in full form

FM 46–IV IAC FLEET Analysis in abbreviated form

FM 47–IX Ext. GRID Processed data in the form of grid-point values

FM 49–IX Ext. GRAF Processed data in the form of grid-point values (abbreviated code form)

FM 50–XIII WINTEM Forecast upper wind and temperature for aviation

FM 51–XIII Ext. TAF Aerodrome forecast

FM 53–X Ext. ARFOR Area forecast for aviation

FM 54–X Ext. ROFOR Route forecast for aviation


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FM SYSTEM OF CODE FORMS - Traditional Alphanumeric Codes (TAC)

FM 57–IX Ext. RADOF Radiological trajectory dose forecast (defined time of arrival and location)

FM 61–IV MAFOR Forecast for shipping

FM 62–VIII Ext. TRACKOB Report of marine surface observation along a ship’s track

FM 63–XI Ext. BATHY Report of bathythermal observation

FM 64–XI Ext. TESAC Temperature, salinity and current report from a sea station

FM 65-XI Ext. WAVEOB Report of spectral wave information from a sea station or from a remote platform (aircraft or satellite)

FM 67–VI HYDRA Report of hydrological observation from a hydrological station

FM 68–VI HYFOR Hydrological forecast

FM 71–XII CLIMAT Report of monthly values from a land station

FM 72–XII CLIMAT SHIP Report of monthly means and totals from an ocean weather station

FM 73–VI NACLI CLINP SPCLI CLISA INCLI Report of monthly means for an oceanic area

FM 75–XII Ext. CLIMAT TEMP Report of monthly aerological means from a land station

FM 76–XII Ext. CLIMAT TEMP SHIP Report of monthly aerological means from an ocean weather station


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FM SYSTEM OF CODE FORMS - Traditional Alphanumeric Codes (TAC)

FM 81–I SFAZI Synoptic report of bearings of sources of atmospherics

FM 82–I SFLOC Synoptic report of the geographical location of sources of atmospherics

FM 83–I SFAZU Detailed report of the distribution of sources of atmospherics by

bearings for any period up to and including 24 hours

FM 85–IX SAREP Report of synoptic interpretation of cloud data obtained by a meteorological satellite

FM 86–XI SATEM Report of satellite remote upper-air soundings of pressure, temperature and humidity

FM 87–XI SARAD Report of satellite clear radiance observations

FM 88–XI SATOB Report of satellite observations of wind, surface temperature, cloud, humidity and radiation


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FM SYSTEM OF CODE FORMS – Table Driven Code Forms (TDCF)

FM 92–XI Ext. GRIB edition 1 Processed data in the form of grid-point values

(gridded binary) expressed in binary form

FM 92–XIII Ext. GRIB edition 2General regularly-distributed information in binary form

FM 94–XIII Ext. BUFR Binary universal form for the representation of meteorological data

FM 95–XIII Ext. CREX Character form for the representation and exchange of data


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What is the WIS?(WMO Information System)

  • An overarching approach to meet information exchange requirements of all WMO Programmes

  • Data centric vs communications centric (legacy approach)

  • Aid WMO to avoid data incompatibilities & problems in sharing valuable data across various programmes

  • Ensure interoperability of Information Systems between WMO Programmes and those outside of the WMO community


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What is the WIS?(WMO Information System)

  • WMO Data Representation Systems (DRS) were historically developed with an inward looking approach to meet Member needs for utilization and exchange of information

  • Beside legacy exchange systems the WIS offers a Data Discovery, Access & Retrieval (DAR) service

  • The WIS DAR will open WMO Member data services and stores up to a wider COI

  • The WIS DAR will expose data services and stores of the wider COI across the community


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WIS Standards

  • WMO has been developing DRSs for many decades

    • Work precedes ISO and many other standards bodies

    • Over 50 legacy DRS

  • Tremendous “richness” of capability already exists

  • WMO has captured this “richness” in its Binary Uniform Format for Representation (BUFR)


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WIS DRM

  • BUFR was developed with an inherent data model

  • From this data model all other DRS needs will be driven

    • ISO compatible feature catalogues

    • Legacy formats

    • OASIS, OGC, JMBL other requirements


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Full BUFR Model

Aviation

Other Needs

?

Hydrology

Public

Weather

Service

Other

Catalogues

?

Aviation

Feature

Catalogue

Public

Weather Service

Feature

Catalogue

Hydrological

Feature Catalogue

ISO 19000 Modelling process for BUFR

BUFR is too big to be represented in a single ISO Feature Catalogue, which should be small enough to be useable by external communities.

No external community uses the full BUFR model, and most communities use a small subset, augmented with extractions, aggregations, and compounds of this subset.

The ISO model is intended for this sort of use.

Aviation Feature Catalogue

Aviation community names linked to

(one or more) BUFR table elements

Hydrological Feature Catalogue

Hydrological community names and common aliases

Public Weather Service

Feature Catalogue

Common names, aliases and language variants linked to relevant BUFR table elements


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WIS DRS Development

  • WMO Expert Teams are tasked with working directly on DRS standards in the following areas

    • Maintenance and update of existing DRS including BUFR

    • Developing and maintaining WMO metadata standards and improving interoperability

    • Migrating off legacy systems to new standards

    • Addressing the DRS requirements of aviation meteorological needs

    • Assessing all DRS requirements of the wider WMO COI and developing policy recommendations regarding how to meet those needs.


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ICAO-WMO PILOT PROJECT FOR REPRESENTING OPMET DATA

  • OPMET data delivery via XML proof of concept - Representation and exchange of TAC OPMET data in XML, initially by wrapping the TAC data in XML and demonstrating the ability to exchange this data over aeronautical telecommunication systems. This phase also includes parsing the contents of the TAC OPMET data into XML and exchanging them as well;

  • Direct conversion of BUFR OPMET data into XML;

  • Development of an ISO compliant modeling process from which feature catalogues are derived. These will include OPMET data in XML/GML as an application of the ISO 19100 series of standards.

  • Support for conjoint development of future versions of WXCM, WXXM, WXXS Weather Information Models and Schema


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WIS Data Dictionary

  • The WIS Data Dictionary is a conjoin of definitions from:

    • BUFR

    • WMO Core Metadata Profile

    • Services metadata

  • BUFR as the parent data model is the primary component

  • BUFR contains:

    • Over 450 Code tables

    • Over 370 flag tables

    • Over 7,000 total features, elements, codes and flags


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WIS Tie in to Other Standards

  • WMO identified Common Alerting Protocol (CAP), OASIS, as a standard for dissemination of warning messages

    • Development underway through Members

    • WMO hosted a CAP Implementers Workshop December 9-10, 2008 in Geneva

  • WMO is assessing Geographic Information Systems (GIS) such as those based on OGC standards

    • Workshop on the use of GIS systems was held at the European Centre for Medium Range Weather Forecasting (ECMWF) in Reading, UK from 24-26 November 2006

    • This workshop reviewed the use of OGC standards to promote collaboration to define a set of common standards to enhance interoperability

  • WMO and ISO have developed an agreement on recognition of each other’s standards and are developing the administrative protocols


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WIS Tie in to Other Standards

  • The WMO is continuing to assess other DRS standards some of which are already in use in the COI

    • Network Common Data Form (NetCDF) ,University Corporation for Atmospheric Research (UCAR)

    • Hierarchical Data Format (HDF), National Center for Supercomputing Applications (NCSA)

    • eXtensible Markup Language (XML), World Wide Web Consortium (W3C) (CAP is based on XML)

    • Abstract Syntax NotationOne (ANS.1), joint ISO/IEC and ITU-T

    • Joint METOC Broker Language (JMBL), DoD

  • Usage recommendations are underway

  • Semantic interoperability being pursued with DRS “owners”

  • Syntactic interoperability being reviewed for development where needed


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BUFR Table

Descriptors

Services Metadata

WMO Core Metadata Profile

Summary - WIS DRM based on:

Full BUFR

Model

Aviation

Other Needs

?

Hydrology

Other

Catalogues

?

Public

Weather

Service

WIS

Data

Dictionary

Aviation

Feature

Catalogue

Hydrological

Feature Catalogue

Public

Weather Service

Feature

Catalogue

WMO Commission for Basic Systems (CBS) is the official steward for these standards


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What are the advantages

  • ISO models are derived from the BUFR model

    • The maintenance process is fundamental and is not changed

    • References to BUFR entries from Feature Catalogues are invertible.

      • Relevant changes to the BUFR model can be mapped and notified to the user communities

  • The structure allows an automatic mapping from BUFR to XML/GML

    • Not necessarily the implementation (although likely to be possible using XML tools)

  • The structure allows servicing of data requests which include extraction of data subsets across sets of BUFR data.

    • e.g. query for all air temperatures within a space and time window.

    • All surface BUFR bulletins expanded into BUFR XML

    • All mappings of air temperature to BUFR elements selected (with relevant position and times)

    • The data returned in an XML/GML encoding under WFS.


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http://www.wmo.ch/pages/prog/www/WIS/


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Discovery Access and Retrieval (DAR)

  • Because DAR metadata must be homogeneous in form and in content, ISO 19115 and ISO 19139 are used for the description of discovery metadata.

  • Metadata could be:

    • Sent as a metadata file via WIS to a GISC prior to publishing the data or product,

    • Collected from the data / product producer (batch mode),

    • Manually edited and validated via a web based interface provided by the system,

    • Automatically generated from existing reference catalogues,

    • Possibly built on the fly during the data ingestion.


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Example: Standardized Interface - Information Search and Retrieval (ISO 23950)

  • Standard used by libraries worldwide for searching online catalogs, and it also used for searching geospatial metadata.

  • Defines how to specify searches precisely for accurate results. Includes lat & long boundaries and scientific terms, as well as bibliographic citations.

  • Can be used simply with Internet search engines. But has the expressive power for complex data searches like chemical formulas and pattern-matching needed for images.


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http://www.wmo.ch/pages/prog/www/WIS/metadata_en.html


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Summary

  • http://wis.wmo.int/2008/metadata/draft_version_11/WMOCore_ver1_1_UML_20081030.pdf

  • WMO has a long history of DRS development

  • WMO is committed to interoperability with the wider COI at semantic and syntactic levels

  • WMO will leverage its existing data model (BUFR) including an extensive data dictionary to implement ISO, OGC, OASIS and other standards as needed to support requirements

  • WMO & the NWS is interested in continuing standards development opportunities and relationships with other agencies


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Questions

Contact info:

Fred Branski:

U.S. National Weather Service

Office of the CIO

International Data Exchange and Requirements Liaison

President, WMO Commission for Basic Systems

E-mail:[email protected]


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