Pauf 610 ta
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PAUF 610 TA. 1 st Discussion. Population & Sample. Population includes all members of a specified group. (total collection of objects/people studied) E.g. MSPP students Sample represents only a subset of the population of interest. (some fraction of the population) E.g. PUAF 610 students.

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PAUF 610 TA

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Pauf 610 ta

PAUF 610 TA

1st Discussion


Population sample

Population & Sample

  • Population includes all members of a specified group. (total collection of objects/people studied)

    • E.g. MSPP students

  • Sample represents only a subset of the population of interest. (some fraction of the population)

    • E.g. PUAF 610 students


Type of statistics

Type of Statistics

  • Descriptive statistics summarize numerical information.

  • Inferential statistics allows to draw inferences about a population based on a sample of that population.


Three main types of data

Three main types of data

  • Cross-sectional data

  • Time-series data

  • Panel data


Cross sectional data

Cross-sectional data

  • represent measurements taken at one time across multiple subjects.

  • E.g. GDP for US, China, UK, Russia in 2009


Time series data

Time-series data

  • include measurements for the same subject over a period of time.

  • E.g. GDP for US from 2000 to 2009.


Panel data

Panel data

  • combine two previous types and provide measurements for multiple subjects over time.

  • E.g. GDP for US, China, UK, Russia from 2000 to 2009.


Constant variable

Constant & Variable

  • If a property (or characteristic) of a object stays the same it is called a constant.

    • E.g. hours per day

  • If it takes on different values it is called a variable. (A variable can take on different values for different individuals)

    • E.g. temperature, gender


Types of variables

Types of Variables

  • Quantitative (Numerical)

  • Qualitative (Categorical)


Quantitative

Quantitative

  • Numeric value that makes sense to do arithmetic operations (+, -, x, /)

    • E.g. height, weight, age, income


Qualitative

Qualitative

  • Records which of several groups or categories to which an individual belongs

    • E.g. gender, race, hair color, field of study


Measurement scales

Measurement scales

  • Qualitative data (unordered or ordered discrete categories)

  • Nominal - numbers are used as labels for the elements in the data system; measured only in terms of whether the individual items belong to certain distinct categories (e.g. gender)

  • Ordinal – can be ordered on the amount of the property being measured and values are assigned in this same order.(e.g. ratings)

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Measurement scales1

Measurement scales

  • Quantitative data (variables have underlying continuity)

  • Interval - numbers indicate rank order, and distances between them have meaning with respect to the property being measured (temperature)

  • Ratio – numbers have all three properties of the real-number system (order, equal distances between units and fixed origin)

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