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# PAUF 610 TA - PowerPoint PPT Presentation

PAUF 610 TA. 1 st Discussion. Population & Sample. Population includes all members of a specified group. (total collection of objects/people studied) E.g. MSPP students Sample represents only a subset of the population of interest. (some fraction of the population) E.g. PUAF 610 students.

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### PAUF 610 TA

1st Discussion

• Population includes all members of a specified group. (total collection of objects/people studied)

• E.g. MSPP students

• Sample represents only a subset of the population of interest. (some fraction of the population)

• E.g. PUAF 610 students

• Descriptive statistics summarize numerical information.

• Inferential statistics allows to draw inferences about a population based on a sample of that population.

• Cross-sectional data

• Time-series data

• Panel data

• represent measurements taken at one time across multiple subjects.

• E.g. GDP for US, China, UK, Russia in 2009

• include measurements for the same subject over a period of time.

• E.g. GDP for US from 2000 to 2009.

• combine two previous types and provide measurements for multiple subjects over time.

• E.g. GDP for US, China, UK, Russia from 2000 to 2009.

• If a property (or characteristic) of a object stays the same it is called a constant.

• E.g. hours per day

• If it takes on different values it is called a variable. (A variable can take on different values for different individuals)

• E.g. temperature, gender

• Quantitative (Numerical)

• Qualitative (Categorical)

• Numeric value that makes sense to do arithmetic operations (+, -, x, /)

• E.g. height, weight, age, income

• Records which of several groups or categories to which an individual belongs

• E.g. gender, race, hair color, field of study

• Qualitative data (unordered or ordered discrete categories)

• Nominal - numbers are used as labels for the elements in the data system; measured only in terms of whether the individual items belong to certain distinct categories (e.g. gender)

• Ordinal – can be ordered on the amount of the property being measured and values are assigned in this same order.(e.g. ratings)

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• Quantitative data (variables have underlying continuity)

• Interval - numbers indicate rank order, and distances between them have meaning with respect to the property being measured (temperature)

• Ratio – numbers have all three properties of the real-number system (order, equal distances between units and fixed origin)

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