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PICTURE CODES ON. Gender and Sexual Abuse Reduction. HOW TO USE PICTURE CODES. Introduction Picture codes are materials that are used to stimulate a discussion about specific issues like behaviour which puts people at risk of HIV infection.

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Picture codes on

PICTURE CODES ON

Gender and Sexual Abuse Reduction


How to use picture codes

HOW TO USE PICTURE CODES

Introduction

  • Picture codes are materials that are used to stimulate a discussion about specific issues like behaviour which puts people at risk of HIV infection.

  • The picture code has a photograph on one side showing people in different situations and on the other side has questions for the outreach worker to ask to stimulate a discussion.

  • Underneath the questions are “talking points” or information the outreach worker can share with participants.

  • Picture code stories are basically the same as picture codes except that there are several pictures that should be shown and discussed one after the other. They usually tell a story of people in different situations who make different behaviour choices.

    Getting started

  • Bring together a group of one to 15 participants for a session and have participants sit in a circle or in a way they can see the picture.

  • It is best not to stand in front of the participants like a teacher since the idea is to get the participants to talk about themselves.

  • The outreach worker should lead the discussion by asking questions and not talk too much.

    Asking questions

  • Show the picture to the participants and start with the general question “What is happening in this picture? That should be enough to get the discussion started.

  • Ask other questions to stimulate further discussion.

  • Skip questions that have already been discussed.

  • Ask follow-up questions to encourage the participants to offer more detail about their behaviour.

  • Try to ask open-ended questions or questions that don’t take a single word answer like “yes” or “no” such as “What do you think about that?”

    Being a good listener

  • Don’t be judgmental or moralistic about the discussion.

  • There is no right or wrong answer to the questions the idea is to get participants to think about their behaviour choices.

  • A good outreach worker is a good listener who appears to be very interested in the answers to the questions.

  • Get the participants to relate what is happening in the photos with themselves or people they know.

  • Correct any misinformation at the end of the session.

    Getting everyone to participate

  • Don’t let one or two people talk all the time.

  • Ask a question directly to a different person each time.

  • Re-ask the same question to different people.

  • Ask others if they agree with the responses given.

    Organizing sessions

  • Discuss about six picture codes or flip chart pages in an hour-long session

  • Discussing 25 pictures in one session is less useful unless it is doubtful the outreach worker will see the participants again

  • Use the information under the “Talking Points” section to answer questions or make points that haven’t already come up in the discussion

  • If specific questions arise find a suitable picture to use to stimulate a discussion on the topic.


Picture codes on

  • What is happening in these pictures?

  • Describe the relationships between the men and women?

  • How do the men feel?

  • How do the women feel?

  • Why do men think they have the right to treat women like this?

  • What can be done to stop it?

  • Talking points:

  • Men do not respect women when they scold them loudly.

  • Drinking too much alcohol increases the chances men will get angry at women.

  • Men should be more understanding of how women feel.

  • Discussing feelings about aggressive behaviour is best done when not drunk. 1


Picture codes on

  • What is happening in these pictures?

  • Describe the relationships between the men and the women?

  • How do the men feel?

  • How do the women feel?

  • Why do men think they have the right to beat women?

  • What can be done to stop men from beating women?

  • Talking points:

  • Men can try to dominate by beating women.

  • Drinking too much alcohol increases the chance that men will beat women.

  • Pressure can be put on men to stop beating women if communities agree it is wrong.

  • Respect traditions like “mosadi galase.” 2


Picture codes on

  • What is happening in these pictures?

  • Why do men physically force women and girls to have sex against their will?

  • Describe how being sexually abused makes women and girls feel?

  • What can be done to get men to stop sexually abusing women?

  • What can be done for communities and schools to put pressure on men and boys to stop raping?

  • Talking points:

  • Men do not respect women if they rape them.

  • Drinking too much alcohol increases the chances men will sexually abuse women.

  • If communities agree that rape is immoral and illegal, pressure can be put on men to stop. 3


Picture codes on

  • What is happening in this picture?

  • Why are orphans and vulnerable children more likely to be raped than other girls?

  • Why are orphans vulnerable to sexual abuse by their male guardians?

  • What can girls do to be less vulnerable to sexual abuse?

  • What can be done to increase the self confidence of female orphans and vulnerable children?

  • Talking points:

  • Orphans and vulnerable children often feel weak and vulnerable and are easily exploited.

  • Female OVCs need to understand they have the right to control their own bodies.

  • Pressure should be put on those abusing orphans and vulnerable children to see how it hurts girls and stop. 4


Picture codes on

  • What is happening in these pictures?

  • What does it take to be a good listener and help a friend with a problem?

  • Who can women and girls talk to if they want to consider taking legal action against a rapist?

  • What are the advantages and disadvantages of charging a rapist?

  • Talking points:

  • Discussing feelings after a rape is very good.

  • Listening and asking questions about feelings is the best way to help a raped friend.

  • Get support when reporting a rape from close friends, family, social workers or teachers.

  • AIDS drugs called PEP can be taken after a rape to reduce the chance of being infected. 5


Picture codes on

  • What is happening in this picture?

  • Why is it not good for a woman to blame herself after being raped?

  • Who should a girl talk to after being raped?

  • What should she do if she wants the rapist to be charged with the crime?

  • Talking points:

  • Steps to take when reporting a rape:

  • Speak to a trusted person like a friend, family member, teacher or social worker.

  • Write down what happened, keep your clothes and try not to bath to save evidence.

  • Report the rape to the police or kgotla immediately.

  • Go with the police to the hospital or clinic.

  • 6


Picture codes on

  • What is happening in this picture?

  • Why are men and boys not more afraid of going to jail for rape?

  • How is it possible that some men or boys don’t even know that rape is morally wrong and illegal?

  • What will the impact be on the life of someone who is convicted of rape?

  • What can be done to make them more aware of the harm rape causes?

  • Talking points:

  • Increasingly men and boys are being charged and convicted of rape.

  • Being charged with rape can be costly and end in jail time.

  • Men never have the right to rape a woman. 6


Drunk story 1

DRUNK STORY 1


Drunk story 11

DRUNK STORY 1

  • What is happening in this picture?

  • Describe the relationship between the woman and the men?

  • What are the intentions of the men?

  • What is the intention of the woman?

  • What do you think will happen next?

  • Talking points:

  • Drinking alcohol makes people want to have sex.

  • Women who don’t want to have sex can seem like they want to when they are drunk.

  • Men may want to exploit drunk women sexually.

  • Men may buy alcohol for women with the hope that they will lose control and want to have sex. 7


Drunk story 2

DRUNK STORY 2


Drunk story 21

DRUNK STORY 2

  • What is happening in this picture?

  • Why is the man forcing the woman to have sex against her will?

  • What could the woman have done to avoid being raped?

  • What do you think the result will be of the man forcing the woman to have sex?

  • Talking points:

  • Drunk men are more likely to rape women.

  • Women are more likely to be raped when they go to shebeens and bars.

  • Women are more likely to be infected with HIV from a man who rapes them since the men usually have had many sexual partners. 8


Wife story 1

WIFE STORY 1


Wife story 11

WIFE STORY 1

  • What is happening in this picture?

  • Why do men think they have the right to rape their wife or the woman they live with?

  • How does the man feel?

  • How does the woman feel?

  • What can be done to stop men from raping their wives or the women they live with?

  • Talking points:

  • Some men think they have the right to sex even if the woman doesn’t want it.

  • Abusing alcohol increases the chances a man will force his wife or the woman he lives with to have sex.

  • Rape is the ultimate insult to women and needs to stop.9


Wife story 2

WIFE STORY 2


Wife story 21

WIFE STORY 2

  • What is happening in this picture?

  • Describe the relationship between the man and woman?

  • What do you think the impact of the rape on their relationship will be?

  • Why is it women can feel powerless when they are sexually abused by the men they live with?

  • What can they do to improve their relationship?

  • Talking points:

  • Some men don’t realize how hurtful rape is to women.

  • Discussing openly and frankly how rape is hurtful, immoral and illegal is the first step to stopping it.

  • Women can discuss rape in their Churches or with 10 friends to gain confidence before discussing it with men.


Teen story 1

TEEN STORY 1


Teen story 11

TEEN STORY 1

  • What is happening in this picture?

  • Why is the boy offering small gifts to the girl?

  • Why is the girl refusing the gifts?

  • What can girls do to make sure that boys understand they are not interested in having sex?

  • Talking points:

  • Men and boys can give gifts to girls with the hope they will have sex with them.

  • Taking gifts can result in the girl being raped if the boy believes the girl owes him sex.

  • Though it maybe tempting to take gifts, refusing them reduces misunderstandings. 11


Teen story 2

TEEN STORY 2


Teen story 21

TEEN STORY 2

  • What is happening in this picture?

  • Why do you think the boy is forcing the girl to have sex?

  • What could the girl have done to avoid being raped?

  • How does she feel?

  • How does the boy feel about raping the girl?

  • Talking points:

  • Avoiding walking alone in secluded areas at night reduces the chances of being raped.

  • If girls are not strong and clear about refusing offers of sex, boys may think they want to and are just shy.

  • Boys need to understand rape is hurtful, immoral and illegal. 12


Teen story 3

TEEN STORY 3


Teen story 31

TEEN STORY 3

  • What is happening in this picture?

  • What are the advantages of talking about being raped with a trusted friend?

  • What can a trusted friend do to make their friend feel better?

  • What do you think will happen next?

  • Talking points:

  • As many as one in four women have been forced to have sex against their will in their life.

  • Most people know the person who rapes them.

  • It is best to talk about the rape experience rather than keep it inside.

  • Friends can help decide what should and can be done in response to the rape. 13


Date story 1

DATE STORY 1


Date story 11

DATE STORY 1

  • What is happening in this picture?

  • How does the man feel about the woman?

  • How does the woman feel about the man?

  • What do you think will happen next?

  • What kind of person makes a good potential boyfriend or girlfriend?

  • Talking points:

  • Finding a potential partner to love and trust is not easy.

  • Love sometimes blinds people from seeing what a person is really like. 14


Picture codes on

DATE STORY2


Date story 2

DATE STORY 2

  • What is happening in this picture?

  • What are the expectations of the girl in accepting to go on a date with the man?

  • What are the expectations of the man in asking the girl to go on a date?

  • What do you think will happen next?

  • Talking points:

  • Men and women may have different expectations.

  • It is best if the girl does not want to have sex on the date to make it clear from the start.

  • Men need to accept that girls should not be expected to have sex just because they accept to go on a date. 15


Date story 3

DATE STORY 3


Date story 31

DATE STORY 3

  • What is happening in this picture?

  • What is the girl thinking and feeling?

  • What is the man thinking and feeling?

  • What do you think of her kissing the man but still not wanting to have sex with him?

  • What do you think will happen next?

  • Talking points:

  • Men often see kissing as accepting to have sex.

  • Women should be avoid touching and kissing if they don’t intend to have sex.

  • Being clear and forceful when refusing sex is best. 16


Date story 4

DATE STORY 4


Date story 41

DATE STORY 4

  • What is happening in this picture?

  • Why is the man pulling the girl to the bedroom?

  • What is her reaction?

  • Why is it best to be absolutely firm when refusing sex?

  • What do you think will happen next?

  • Talking points:

  • Men often think girls who are resisting sex don’t want to be seen as being easy but really want sex.

  • Girls are better off avoiding going to the home of men they don’t know well and can trust. 17


Date story 42

DATE STORY 4


Date story 43

DATE STORY 4

  • What is happening in this picture?

  • What is the man thinking when he is forcing the girl to have sex?

  • How does the girl feel about being forced to have sex against her will?

  • What will be the result of the man raping her?

  • What do you think will happen next?

  • Talking points:

  • Sadly the man may not even be aware what he has done is very wrong and illegal.

  • The girl should not blame herself for what happened as the man has no right to force himself on her.

  • The girl should avoid future contact with the man. 18


Date story 5

DATE STORY 5


Date story 51

DATE STORY 5

  • What is happening in this picture?

  • What do you think the man will do now?

  • What do you think the girl should do now?

  • What are the advantages and disadvantages of going to the police?

  • What is the reaction of the police likely to be?

  • What things can the girl do to deal with how she feels?

  • Talking points:

  • Don’t keep the pain of rape inside and talk to a close friend or trusted family member about it.

  • Getting advice from social workers and other counsellors about going to the police makes sense. 19


Date story 6

DATE STORY 6


Date story 61

DATE STORY 6

  • What is happening in this picture?

  • Describe the relationship between the two woman?

  • How does it make the raped girl feel to talk about it with a close friend?

  • What advice would you give the girl if you were her friend?

  • Talking points:

  • Talking to trusted friends is the best thing to do after being sexually abused.

  • Friends can help what decide what the best thing to do about it is.

  • Men need to understand the impact of forcing a woman to have sex and that it is wrong. 20


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