Snow depth differences at 10 080 ft under limber pine engelmann spruce and aspen trees
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Snow depth differences at 10,080 ft. under Limber Pine, Engelmann Spruce, and Aspen trees. By Ryan Zubizarreta. Winter Ecology, 2010 Mountain Research Station, University of Colorado, Boulder EBIO 4100, Sec 570. Question.

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Snow depth differences at 10,080 ft. under Limber Pine, Engelmann Spruce, and Aspen trees

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Snow depth differences at 10 080 ft under limber pine engelmann spruce and aspen trees

Snow depth differences at 10,080 ft. under Limber Pine, Engelmann Spruce, and Aspen trees

By Ryan Zubizarreta

  • Winter Ecology, 2010

    Mountain Research Station,

    University of Colorado, Boulder

    EBIO 4100, Sec 570


Question

Question

  • Which tree species allows snow accumulation to fall through the canopy more efficiently and which species holds snow accumulation more effectively in the canopy?


Pinus flexilis

Pinus flexilis


Picea engelmannii

Picea engelmannii


Populus tremuloides

Populus tremuloides


Location

Location

MRS


Snow depth differences at 10 080 ft under limber pine engelmann spruce and aspen trees

HypothesisThere will be a significant difference at the .05 level that Engelmann Spruce will have a shallower snow pack underneath the canopy than the limber pine, therefore representing that more snow is caught in the canopy of the spruce compared to the pine.


Methods

Methods

  • Measure snow depth using snow probe

  • Due north of trunk at snow pack level

  • .5 m and 1m

  • All tree’s at least 4.5m above snow pack to ensure full grown canopy

  • All trees in same stand at a SSE aspect and moderate slope to ensure all trees have same amount of precipitation, limiting nutrients, wind exposure and solar exposure. (Same ecotone)


Means n 27

Means N=27

Spruce

72.74cm

77.37cm

Pine

64.81cm

76.25cm

Aspen(control)

115.14cm

129.81cm

.5m

1m


T test results for distance of one species

T-test results for distance of one species

  • SprucePineAspen

    .976.644.735

    -4.68-4.24-1.58

    1.711.711.71

    Reject!Reject!Reject! (

    3.89E-05 0.000122 0.062157

    Why so close?

Pearsons correlation

(r)

T-Stat

T-crit one tail

Accetp or reject?

P value

1-tail (confirm)


Anova results between three species

ANOVA results between three species

  • Can reject null for species effect

    P-value=1.27E-24

    Distance not dependent upon species

  • Can reject null for Distance effect

    P-value=0.033675

    Distance not dependent upon distance effect

  • Can not reject null for interaction

    P-value=0.675718

    Same amount of snow under canopy of Pine and Spruce


Anova between limber pine and engelmann spruce

ANOVA between Limber Pine and Engelmann Spruce.

  • Can not reject due to species (no significant difference between species)

    P-value= 0.252533

  • Can reject due to distance (significant difference due to distance)

    P-value= 0.043222

  • Can not reject due to interaction effect (not dependent between species)

  • P-value=0.387572


Results and analysis

Results and Analysis


Discussion

Discussion

  • What might be some reasoning for snow falling through canopies?

  • How did the snow get there?

  • Abiotic(or biotic) factors that may of skewed the data?

  • What if snow evaporates or subliminates off of tree?

    (Montesi 2004)


Conclusion

Conclusion

  • Distance not dependent upon species

  • There is not a significant difference in the amount of snow under the canopies of Engelmann Spruce and Limber Pine. There is however a significant difference between Aspen(due to being deciduous and not having a winter canopy ).


Bibliography

Bibliography

  • Montesi. “Sublimation of Intercepted Snow within a Subalpine Forest Canopy at Two Elevations.” American Meteorological Society (2004): pp.763-773

  • Franklin. “Tree Death as an Ecological Process.” Bioscience. Vol 37 no. 8. (1987): pp.550-556


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