Honors ushc
Download
1 / 16

HONORS USHC - PowerPoint PPT Presentation


  • 107 Views
  • Uploaded on

HONORS USHC. C. 11 THE CIVIL WAR AND RECONSTRUCTION. THE CIVIL WAR. THE ELECTION OF 1860 REPUBLICAN PARTY PLATFORM: TRANSCONTINENTAL RR OPEN IMMIGRATION STATES KEEP OWN “INSTITUTIONS” HOMESTEAD ACT STOP THE SPREAD OF SLAVERY WEST CANDIDATE: ABRAHAM LINCOLN (ILLINOIS)

loader
I am the owner, or an agent authorized to act on behalf of the owner, of the copyrighted work described.
capcha
Download Presentation

PowerPoint Slideshow about ' HONORS USHC' - kamin


An Image/Link below is provided (as is) to download presentation

Download Policy: Content on the Website is provided to you AS IS for your information and personal use and may not be sold / licensed / shared on other websites without getting consent from its author.While downloading, if for some reason you are not able to download a presentation, the publisher may have deleted the file from their server.


- - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - E N D - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
Presentation Transcript
Honors ushc

HONORS USHC

C. 11 THE CIVIL WAR AND RECONSTRUCTION


The civil war
THE CIVIL WAR

  • THE ELECTION OF 1860

  • REPUBLICAN PARTY

    • PLATFORM:

      • TRANSCONTINENTAL RR

      • OPEN IMMIGRATION

      • STATES KEEP OWN “INSTITUTIONS”

      • HOMESTEAD ACT

      • STOP THE SPREAD OF SLAVERY WEST

    • CANDIDATE:

      • ABRAHAM LINCOLN (ILLINOIS)

  • NORTHERN DEMOCRAT PARTY

    • PLATFORM:

      • HONEST POPULAR SOVEREIGNTY

      • QUESTIONS OF SLAVERY TO THE SUPREME COURT

    • CANDIDATE

      • STEPHEN DOUGLAS (ILLINOIS)

  • SOUTHERN DEMOCRAT PARTY

    • PLATFORM:

      • FEDERAL PROTECTION OF SLAVERY IN ALL TERRITORIES

    • CANDIDATE:

      • JOHN C. BRECKINRIDGE (TENNESSEE)

  • CONSTITUTIONAL UNION PARTY

    • PLATFORM:

      • COMPROMISE AND CONSTITUTIONAL AMENDMENT PERMITTING SLAVERY

    • CANDIDATE:

      • JOHN BELL (KENTUCKY)


Election results and secession
ELECTION RESULTS AND SECESSION

  • RESULTS:

    • BELL—

    • BRECKINRIDGE—

    • DOUGLAS—

    • LINCOLN---

  • SECESSION

  • DEC. 20, 1860– based on fear that Lincoln would end slavery in the South– SC seceded from the Union.

  • Followed by: Mississippi, Alabama, Georgia, Florida, Louisiana and Texas.

  • CONFEDERATE STATES OF AMERICA

  • Feb. 1861, the 7 seceded states formed the Confederate States of America.

  • Chose Jefferson Davis as President

  • Chose Montgomery, Alabama as the capital.


First battle and the key figures of the war
First battle and the key figures of the war

  • Ft. Sumter (Charleston Harbor): Mar. 1861 Pres. Lincoln ordered supplies to be sent to the garrison stationed at Ft. Sumter.

  • April 12, 1861: Confederate forces led by PGT Beauregard opened fire on the fort. The war had begun. Union forces surrendered the fort on April 13.

  • Lincoln put out a call for 75,000 volunteers.

  • Some border states seceded. (Va., Tenn., Arkansas, NC)

  • Others stayed in the USA (Md., Ky. and Missouri)

  • Lincoln asked Robert E. Lee to lead the army. He refused. Joined Virginia Militia instead.

  • Confederacy moved its capital to Richmond.

  • KEY FIGURES:

  • ABRAHAM LINCOLNJEFFERSON DAVIS

  • GEORGE McCLELLANROBERT E. LEE

  • ULYSSES GRANTSTONEWALL JACKSON

  • WILLIAM T. SHERMANJEB STUART


Comparison of the blue and the gray
COMPARISON OF THE BLUE AND THE GRAY

CATEGORY NORTH SOUTH

POPULATION 25,000,000 9,000,000 (40% slaves)

INDUSTRY/ 95% factories Tredegar Iron Works

AGRICULTURE surplus food crops 1 metal forge, 2 gun factories

cotton, tobacco

RAILROAD 3 x mileage of south, State gauge

MILEAGE All standard gauge

MONEY Greenbacks, gold supply No backing (Confederate $)

GOVERNMENT Established 1776--REPUBLICCONFEDERATE with no foreign recognition 1861

NAVY Naval officers stayed loyal Very few

100,000 sailors

MILITARY Winfield Scott, George McClellan Robert E. Lee, Stonewall Jack-

LEADERS Irwin McDowell, Ulysses Grant, son, Jeb Stuart, PTG Beau-

William T. Sherman, Phil Sheridan regard, James Longstreet

THEIR CAUSE “Save the Union” “ free the slaves” “Southern Independence”

STRATEGY Anaconda Plan (Winfield Scott) Cotton diplomacy, defensive war


Key battles of the civil war
KEY BATTLES OF THE CIVIL WAR

  • 1ST BULL RUN (Manassas Junction) July 21, 1861

  • Confederate victory 30 miles south of Washington, DC.

  • The South lost opportunity to win the war.

  • Naval Battles:

  • March 9, 1862 USS Monitor v. CSS Merrimack (Virginia)

  • Ironclad ships.

  • Later in the war (1865) the South developed the CSS Hunley (1st submarine)

  • EASTERN THEATER: (Army of the Potomac v. Army of Northern Virginia)

  • 2nd BULL RUN: Aug. 29, 1862

    • Stopped another Northern invasion of Richmond.

    • Lee then decided to invade the North.

  • ANTIETAM: Sept. 17, 1862 (Sharpsburg, Md.)

    • Because Lee’s battle orders were found by a Union soldier, the North won a great victory. Single bloodiest day of the war.

    • Lincoln issued the Emancipation Proclamation afterwards. (Jan. 1, 1863)

      • Freed all the slaves in the Confederate States.

      • Freed none in the loyal border states

      • Kept England and France out of the war.

      • Allowed for the formation of Black fighting units: 54th Massachusetts.


Eastern theater continued
EASTERN THEATER CONTINUED:

  • CHANCELLORSVILLE, Va. (MAY 1-5, 1863)

    • Greatest Confederate victory of the war.

    • Lee was outnumbered 2-1, but split his army and defeated the Union forces.

    • Stonewall Jackson was killed after the battle by one of his own men. Lee lost his most valuable general.

    • Lee decides to invade the North for a 2nd time

  • GETTYSBURG, Pa. (JULY 1-3, 1863)

    • This is the turning point of the war.

    • Regarded as the “high water mark of the Confederacy”.

    • Famous for Chamberlain’s bayonet charge at Little Round Top on the 2nd day and “Pickett’s Charge” on the 3rd day of the battle.

    • 51,000 casualties. Lee losses in his 2nd attempt to invade the North. Confederate army retreats back to Virginia.

    • Lee offers his resignation, Davis refuses it.

    • GETTYSBURG ADDRESS (NOV. 1863)

    • Lincoln outlines reasons for the war and what it will do for the future of the US. “New birth of freedom”, “Government by the people and for the people, shall not perish from this earth.”


Western theater
WESTERN THEATER

  • VICKSBURG, MS. (MAY 15- JULY 4, 1863)

    • Last stronghold Confederate stronghold on the Mississippi.

    • Grant laid siege to the city for 5 months.

    • Vicksburg fell one day after Lee lost at Gettysburg.

    • Union now controlled the river.

  • SHERMAN’S MARCH TO THE SEA (MAY-DEC. 1864)

    • Sherman cleared a 60-100 mile wide path of destruction from Chattanooga, Tn. To Atlanta to Savannah to Columbia to Greensboro, NC.

    • “Total War”.

    • Ultimately trapping Lee between him and Grant.

      POLITICAL ISSUES

      North:

    • Copperheads, Lincoln suspended Habeas Corpus.

    • The Draft: “Rich man’s war, poor man’s fight”. Led to “draft riots” in NY City.

      South:

    • Failure of Cotton Diplomacy.

    • The Draft.

    • Collapse of the economy.


  • ELECTION OF 1864

  • CANDIDATES

  • ISSUES

  • RESULTS

  • UNION VICTORY

  • 1. MARCH 1864 GRANT NAMED SUPREME COMMANDER OF ALL UNION FORCES.

  • 2. USING THE NORTH’S NUMERICAL AND INDUSTRIAL SUPERIORITY BEGAN TO HAMMER AWAY AT LEE.

  • June- 1864- April 1865 Grant fought a war of attrition.

  • April 7—Battle of Farmville, Va. 1/3 of Lee’s army surrendered to Grant.

  • APRIL 9, 1865, LEE WAS SURROUNDED AT APPOMATTOX COURTHOUSE, VA.—Lee surrendered to Grant

  • April 14, 1865 LINCOLN ASSASSINATED– John Wilkes Booth

  • April 26, 1865 GEN. JOSEPH JOHNSTON SURRENDERED TO GEN SHERMAN AT DURHAM, NC. THE WAR HAD ENDED.

  • May 1, 1865– Confederate government disbanded Abbeville, SC

  • May 10, 1865– Jefferson Davis captured in Irwinville, Ga.


Reconstruction of the south
RECONSTRUCTION OF THE SOUTH

  • 1865 THE UNION HAD BEEN PRESERVED. LONG BEFORE THE END OF THE WAR PRESIDENT LINCOLN HAD ALREADY LAID OUT HIS PLAN FOR REBUILDING OR “RECONSTRUCTING” THE SOUTH.

  • LINCOLN’S PLAN: 1862-63 PRESIDENTIAL RECONSTRUCTION

  • 1. HAITIAN IMMIGRATION FOR EX-SLAVES. 1862

  • 2. FREEDMAN’S BUREAU ACT 1862:

    • GOVERNMENT AID TO THE NEWLY FREED SLAVE. HOUSING, HEALTH CARE, EDUCATION AND 50 ACRES OF LAND. FIRST USED AT HILTON HEAD ISLAND, SC.

  • 3. HOMESTEAD ACT 1862:

    • 50-160 ACRES OF LAND IN THE WEST FOR FREE IF ONE LIVED ON IT AND WORKED IT FOR 5 YEARS.

  • 4. PROCLAMATION OF AMNESTY AND RECONSTRUCTION DEC. 1863:(LINCOLN’S METHOD FOR READMITTING EX-CONFEDERATE STATES TO THE US.)

    • 10% OF VOTERS TAKE AN OATH OF ALLEGIANCE TO US.

    • DRAFT A STATE CONSTITUTION BANNING SLAVERY.

    • PARDON ALL EX-CONFEDERATES WHO TOOK OATH AND ACCEPTED ABOLITION.

    • 1864– ARKANSAS, LOUISIANA, AND TENNESSEE READMITTED.


Congressional opposition
CONGRESSIONAL OPPOSITION

  • RADICAL REPUBLICAN MEMBERS OF CONGRESS THOUGHT LINCOLN’S PLAN WAS TOO LENIENT. THEY FELT THAT THE SOUTH SHOULD BE PUNISHED FOR WHAT THEY HAD DONE.

    • CALLED FOR BLACK VOTING RIGHTS.

    • SOUTHERN ACCEPTANCE OF BLACK CIVIL RIGHTS.

    • PROPERTY DISTRIBUTION TO EX-SLAVES.

    • CONGRESS REFUSED THE READMISSION OF LA., ARK., AND TENN. UNTIL THOSE REFORMS WERE ENACTED.

  • JULY, 1864: WADE-DAVIS BILL

    • 50% LOYALTY AND ABOLITION OATH

    • DISENFRANCHISEMENT OF ALL HIGH RANKING EX-CONFEDERATES.

    • POCKET VETOED BY LINCOLN. SPLIT THE REPUBLICAN PARTY

  • LINCOLN’S ASSASSINATION NEVER GAVE HIM A CHANCE TO RESPOND TO CONGRESS’ DEMANDS

  • PRES. ANDREW JOHNSON’S PLAN:

  • MAY 1865:

    • BLANKET AMNESTY FOR ALL BUT THE HIGHEST RANKING CONFEDERATE OFFICIALS, MILITARY OFFICERS AND FOR THOSE WITH MORE THAN $20,000 OF TAXABLE PROPERTY.

    • NORTH CAROLINA MODEL– AMNESTY AND OATH—VOTING RIGHTS, INTERIM GOVERNOR APPOINTED BY PRESDIENT UNTIL ELECTIONS.


Division over reconstruction
DIVISION OVER RECONSTRUCTION

  • RADICALS IN CONGRESS OPPOSED LIMITING VOTING RIGHTS TO WHITES ONLY.

  • RADICALS IN CONGRESS BELIEVED JOHNSON WAS PLANNING TO RESTORE WHITE SUPREMACY IN THE SOUTH.

  • MODERATES BELIEVED IN LIMITED BLACK RIGHTS BUT STILL SUPPORTED THE PRESIDENT.

  • 13TH AMENDMENT SENT TO THE STATES-- SPRING 1865– PROHIBITED SLAVERY

  • SOUTHERN DEFIANCE:

  • WITH CONGRESS RECESSED FOR THE REST OF 1865:

  • 1. NO SOUTHERN STATE GAVE ANY RIGHTS TO BLACKS.

  • 2. JOHNSON ISSUED PARDONS TO HIGH-RANKING EX-CONFEDERATES ON CASE-BY-CASE BASIS.

  • 3. SOUTHERN STATES IN THE FALL OF 1865 REELECTED EX-CONFEDERATES TO LOCAL, STATE AND NATIONAL OFFICES. ALEXANDER STEPHENS REELECTED TO THE SENATE FROM GEORGIA.

  • 4. SOUTHERN STATE GOVERNMENTS PASSED “BLACK CODES”.

    • BLACKS COULD NOT TESTIFY IN COURT AGAINST WHITES.

    • BLACKS COULD NOT SERVE ON JURIES OR VOTE.

    • BANNED INTERRACIAL MARRIAGE.

    • RESTRICTED BLACKS TO CERTAIN JOBS AND CERTAIN AREAS TO LIVE.

    • BLACKS HELD TO STRICT VAGRANCY LAWS

  • BLACKS RETURNED TO CONDITIONS OF SEMI-SLAVERY.

  • THIS ANGERED MANY NORTHERNERS.


Congressional reconstruction
CONGRESSIONAL RECONSTRUCTION

  • 1866—NEW FREEDMEN’S BUREAU ACT (MARTIAL LAW TO PROTECT BLACKS) VETOED

  • 1866– CIVIL RIGHTS ACT (VETOED BUT OVERRIDDEN)

  • 1866—14TH AMENDMENT passed by Congress, sent to states for approval

  • 1867—RECONSTRUCTION ACT OF 1867 (VETOED BUT OVERRIDDEN)

    • ALL SOUTHERN STATES KICKED OUT OF UNION

    • SOUTH DIVIDED INTO 5 MILITARY DISTRICTS

    • READMITTED WHEN NEW CONSTITUTIONS GUARANTEE BLACK RIGHTS

    • RATIFY 14TH AMENDMENT

    • DISENFRANCHISE ALL EX-CONFEDERATES

    • TENNESSEE THE FIRST TO COMPLY

  • TENURE OF OFFICE ACT OF 1867

  • IMPEACHMENT OF ANDREW JOHNSON (FEB. 1868)

  • 14th Amendment ratified

  • POLITICAL POWER IN THE SOUTH CONTROLLED BY:

    • CARPETBAGGERS, SCALAWAGS, BLACKS

  • Purchase of Alaska $7.2 million

  • Overthrow of Mexican emperor Maximilian I in 1867.

  • AFRICAN-AMERICANS AND ECONOMIC RECONSTRUCTION

    • SHARECROPPING (TENANT FARMING) AND CROP LIEN

    • DEMAND FOR EDUCATION


White reaction to the radical governments in the south
WHITE REACTION TO THE RADICAL GOVERNMENTS IN THE SOUTH

  • ELECTION OF 1868

    • CANDIDATES:

  • GRANT’S PRESIDENCY

  • 15th Amendment ratified 1870

  • FORMATION OF WHITE TERRORIST GROUPS

    • Force acts 1870, 1871

  • TRANSCONTINENTAL RAILROAD COMPLETED-1869

  • THREAT OF WAR WITH ENGLAND

    • TREATY OF WASHINGTON 1872

  • SCANDALS

  • ELECTION OF 1872:

    • 3 CANDIDATES:

    • ISSUES:

  • PANIC OF 1873

  • CIVIL RIGHTS ACT 1875

  • ELECTION OF 1876

    Candidates: Democrats

    Republicans

    Outcome:

  • COMPROMISE OF 1877

  • RECONSTRUCTION ENDS


Presidency of rutherford b hayes
PRESIDENCY OF RUTHERFORD B. HAYES

  • HAYES’S ADMINISTATION

  • HOME RULE RETURNS TO THE SOUTH—”BOURBON RULE” (racist whites return to power)

  • SOUTH ENACTS SEGREGATION LAWS—”JIM CROW” LAWS

    • DE JURE

    • DE FACTO

  • FEDERAL GOVERNMENT RETURNS VOTING PRACTICES BACK TO THE STATES:

    • LITERACY TESTS

    • GRANDFATHER CLAUSES

    • POLL TAXES

  • POLITICAL PARTIES CHANGE:

  • REPUBLICANS—

    • PARTY SPLIT

      • STALWARTS—oppose civil service reform

      • HALF-BREEDS—support civil service reform

    • BASE CHANGED—party of the rich and big business

    • BELIEFS CHANGED

  • DEMOCRATS—

    • STRONG WITH IMMIGRANTS AND LABOR UNIONS

    • BECAME MORE LIBERAL ON MANY SOCIAL ISSUES

  • CHINESE EXCLUSION ACT PASSED 1879—VETOED

  • S. CT. DECISIONS:

  • SLAUGHTERHOUSE CASES 1873—14TH Amendment did not protect civil rights, those are protected by the State.

  • US V. CRUIKSHANK, 1876—Fed. Govt. did not have the power to punish people who had oppressed blacks.

  • US V. REESE,1876—weakened the 15th Amendment, 15th did not grant anyone voting rights, merely listed the grounds on which voting could not be denied.


The segregated south
THE SEGREGATED SOUTH

  • CIVIL RIGHTS CASES 1883

    • CIVIL RIGHTS ACT OF 1875 UNCONSTITUTIONAL

  • PLESSY V. FERGUSON, 1896

    • SEPARATE BUT EQUAL LEGALIZED

  • WILLIAMS V. MISSISSIPPI, 1898

    • USE OF VOTER REGISTRATION ROLLS FOR JURY SELECTION LEGAL.

    • BLACK RESPONSE TO SEGREGATION:

  • ATLANTA COMPROMISE 1895

    • BOOKER T. WASHINGTON

  • CREATION OF NAACP (Niagara Movement)

    • W.E.B DUBOIS

    • HENRY TURNER


ad