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Cosmic genesis Physical Laws Drive the Formation of Structure in the Universe. Fred C. Adams Physics Department, University of Michigan. SATURDAY MORNING PHYSICS. How did we get here?. Four Forces of Nature. Strong. Gravity. Weak. Electromagnetism. Classical (19th century) Physics.

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cosmic genesis physical laws drive the formation of structure in the universe

Cosmic genesis Physical Laws Drive the Formation of Structure in the Universe

Fred C. Adams

Physics Department, University of Michigan

SATURDAY MORNING PHYSICS

four forces of nature
Four Forces of Nature

Strong

Gravity

Weak

Electromagnetism

slide4

Classical (19th century) Physics

Quantum Mechanics

Relativity

Chaos

Our Universe

cosmic timeline
Cosmic Timeline

(uchicago.edu)

slide7

The Inflationary Universe

(Guth/Wudka)

(G vs G)

Time in seconds

slide8

Matter > Antimatter

S vs G

(members.aol.com)

slide9

time t < 1 second:

Dark Matter Freezes Out

Dark matter abundance freezes

before the universe is 1 second old

W vs G

slide10

The synthesis of light elements begins

when the universe is one second old

S vs E vs G

(physics.uoregon.edu)

slide11

Helium

Deuterium

Lithium

(Schramm)

slide12

COBE Blackbody

T = 2.723 Kelvin

Intensity

frequency

E

slide14

G

The VIRGO consortium

slide23

14 Gyr

54 Gyr

Island

Universe

92 Gyr

Busha, Adams, Evrard,

and Wechsler 2003

slide24

Every galaxy has a

supermassive

black hole

anchoring its center

Mbh = millions to

billions of Suns

Gravity wins!

G

(astro.cf.ac.uk)

slide25

Every galaxy

produces about

one million

stellar mass

black holes

(Gravity wins again)

G

(life-enhancement.com)

slide27

Stars are still forming today

The Eagle Nebula

(Hester et al.)

slide29

The Stages of

Star Formation

Gravity

vs

Pressure

slide30

C

Luminosity

B

A

Spectral Class

(Faulkes)

slide31

The fifty (50)

nearest stars

Our Sun is the

fourth largest!

slide35

Distribution of Stellar Masses

Stars that explode

Stars that

become

white dwarfs

Brown dwarfs

slide36

Galaxy continues to

  • make new stars.
  • Time scales are
  • lengthened by:
  • Recycling
  • Infall onto disk
  • Reduced SF rate
slide37

Star formation continues

until the galaxy runs out of gas

(trillions of years from now)

The smallest, longest lived stars

last for tens of trillions of years

slide38

Star formation continues

until the galaxy runs out of gas

(trillions of years from now)

The smallest, longest lived stars

last for tens of trillions of years

Our universe is young:

Only one tenth of one percent

of the Stelliferous Era has

taken place so far!

extrasolar planets
Extrasolar Planets!

California planet search

slide44

Comets can carry water to

newborn terrestrial planets

slide45

But most water for Earth probably

came from hydrogenated rocks

slide46

Galilean Satellites:

Icy worlds are easy to make

Ganymede Callisto Io Europa

slide49

Our universe seems to have just the

right version of the laws of physics

so thatLIFE CAN EMERGE

slide50

Our universe seems to have just the

right version of the laws of physics

so thatLIFE CAN EMERGE

WHY?

for further reading
For further reading:
  • Five Ages of the Universe: Inside the physics of eternity, Fred Adams & Greg Laughlin, 1999
  • Origins of Existence: How life emerged in the universe, Fred Adams, 2002
slide55

Hawking Radiation

Virtual particles

Black

hole

red dwarf saves earth
Red Dwarf saves Earth

moon

red dwarf

sun

earth

slide59

Red dwarf captures the Earth

Sun exits with one red dwarf

as a binary companion

9000 year

interaction

Earth exits with the

other red dwarf

Sun and Earth encounter

binary pair of red dwarfs

primordial era
Primordial Era
  • The Big Bang
  • Inflation
  • Matter > Antimatter
  • Quarks -> protons, neutrons
  • Nuclear synthesis of the light elements
  • Cosmic Microwave Background
  • Universe continues to expand
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