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Chapter 22. The Elements in Nature and Industry. The Elements in Nature and Industry. 22.1 How the Elements Occur in Nature. 22.2 The Cycling of Elements Through the Environment. 22.3 Metallurgy: Extracting a Metal from Its Ore.

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Chapter 22

The Elements in Nature and Industry


The Elements in Nature and Industry

22.1 How the Elements Occur in Nature

22.2 The Cycling of Elements Through the Environment

22.3 Metallurgy: Extracting a Metal from Its Ore

22.4 Tapping the Crust: Isolation and Uses of the Elements

22.5 Chemical Manufacturing: Two Case Studies


Figure 22.1

Cosmic and terrestrial abundances of selected elements (mass %).



Ancient effect of an O2-rich atmosphere.

Figure 22.3

hematite (Fe2O3)

fossil of Hallucigenia sparsa


Figure 22.4

Sources of the elements.


The carbon cycle.

Figure 22.5


The nitrogen cycle.

Figure 22.6




Pretreating

Magnetic attraction

Cyclone separation

Flotation

Leaching

Converting

(mineral to compound)

Pyrometallurgy

(roasting, etc.)

Hydrometallurgy

Refining

Electrorefining

Distillation

Zone refining

Alloying

Mining

Steps in metallurgy.

Figure 22.9






vanadium carbide

b-brass

Cu3Au

Three binary alloys.

Figure 22.14


Figure 22.15

The Downs cell for production of sodium.







mining chalcopyrite

jet engine assembly


Figure 22.21

The production of elemental Mg from seawater.





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