Chapter 22
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Chapter 22. The Elements in Nature and Industry. The Elements in Nature and Industry. 22.1 How the Elements Occur in Nature. 22.2 The Cycling of Elements Through the Environment. 22.3 Metallurgy: Extracting a Metal from Its Ore.

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Chapter 22

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Chapter 22

Chapter 22

The Elements in Nature and Industry


Chapter 22

The Elements in Nature and Industry

22.1 How the Elements Occur in Nature

22.2 The Cycling of Elements Through the Environment

22.3 Metallurgy: Extracting a Metal from Its Ore

22.4 Tapping the Crust: Isolation and Uses of the Elements

22.5 Chemical Manufacturing: Two Case Studies


Chapter 22

Figure 22.1

Cosmic and terrestrial abundances of selected elements (mass %).


Chapter 22

Geochemical differentiation of the elements.

Figure 22.2


Chapter 22

Ancient effect of an O2-rich atmosphere.

Figure 22.3

hematite (Fe2O3)

fossil of Hallucigenia sparsa


Chapter 22

Figure 22.4

Sources of the elements.


Chapter 22

The carbon cycle.

Figure 22.5


Chapter 22

The nitrogen cycle.

Figure 22.6


Chapter 22

The phosphorous cycle.

Figure 22.7


Chapter 22

Industrial uses of phosphorous.

Figure 22.8


Chapter 22

Pretreating

Magnetic attraction

Cyclone separation

Flotation

Leaching

Converting

(mineral to compound)

Pyrometallurgy

(roasting, etc.)

Hydrometallurgy

Refining

Electrorefining

Distillation

Zone refining

Alloying

Mining

Steps in metallurgy.

Figure 22.9


Chapter 22

The cyclone separator.

Figure 22.10


Chapter 22

The flotation process.

Figure 22.11


Chapter 22

The thermite reaction.

Figure 22.12


Chapter 22

The redox step in converting a mineral to the element.

Figure 22.13


Chapter 22

vanadium carbide

b-brass

Cu3Au

Three binary alloys.

Figure 22.14


Chapter 22

Figure 22.15

The Downs cell for production of sodium.


Chapter 22

The major reactions in a blast furnace.

Figure 22.16


Chapter 22

The basic-oxygen process for making steel.

Figure 22.17


Chapter 22

The electrorefining of copper.

Figure 22.18


Chapter 22

The electrolytic cell in the manufacture of aluminum.

Figure 22.19


Chapter 22

The many familiar and essential uses of aluminum.

Figure 22.20


Chapter 22

mining chalcopyrite

jet engine assembly


Chapter 22

Figure 22.21

The production of elemental Mg from seawater.


Chapter 22

The Frasch process for mining elemental sulfur.

Figure 22.22


Chapter 22

The many indispensable applications of sulfuric acid.

Figure 22.23


Chapter 22

A diaphragm chlor-alkali cell.

Figure 22.24


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