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ICDL. Module 1. Basic Concepts of Information Technology. Computer System. Types of Computer. Memory Storage & Computer Performance. Data Communication & Networks. Computer in Everyday Life. Health & Environment. Computer Ethics.

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Icdl

ICDL


Module 1

Module 1

Basic Concepts of Information Technology


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Computer System.

Types of Computer.

Memory Storage & Computer Performance.

Data Communication & Networks.

Computer in Everyday Life.

Health & Environment.

Computer Ethics.


Computers are information processing machines they can be connected all over the world

Computers are Information Processing Machines. They can be connected all over the world.

Computer perform three main operations:

1) Receive input (Data raw facts).

2) Process it according to predefined instructions.

3) Produce output (information which is meaning data).


The components of computer system

The Components of Computer System

Hardware.

Software.

Users.


Hardware

HARDWARE

The term hardware refers to the physical components of your computer such as the system unit, mouse, keyboard, monitor… etc.


Software

SOFTWARE

  • The software is the instructions that makes the computer work.

  • Software is held either on your computers hard disk, CD-ROM, DVD or on a diskette (floppy disk) and is loaded (i.e. copied) from the disk into the computers RAM (Random Access Memory), as and when required.


Users

USERS

A person who uses the software on the computer to do some tasks.


Information technology it

INFORMATION TECHNOLOGY(IT)

A set of tools that are used to:

receive, process, store, retrieve, print

and transmit information in an electronic form. These forms can be: text, sounds, picture or video.


Types of computer

Types of Computer


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  • Mainframe computer.

  • Mini-computer.

  • Super-computer.

  • Personal Computers.

  • Networked computer.

  • Laptop computer.

  • Palmtop Computer.


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  • Mainframe Computers:

    • Room-sized, Very powerful, used by large organisations such an banks to control the entire business operation. Very expensive!

    • They are connected to a large number of terminals that could be Dumb.


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MiniComputers:

Do the same jobs as mainframe, but smaller scale. They are used by medium-sized companies for specific purposes, such as accounting.


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Super Computers:

Are high capacity, expensive, are used for research and weather forecasting, oil explorationand aircraft design.


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  • Personal Computers:

    Cheap and easy to use. Often used as stand-alone computers or in a network. May be connected to large mainframe computers within big companies.


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Network Computer:

A large Pc-type computer called a Server is connected to smaller PCs called Clients or Terminals, therefore it is unable to work independently.


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Laptop Computer:

It is small, briefcase-sized and portable. It is powerful as PC but more expensive.


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Palmtop Computer:

It is hand-held computer, which is called a Notepad with small screen and keyboard. It performs some special functions and is considered to be cheap.

Personal Digital Assistants (PDA):

Are small pen controlled, handheld computer.

Can be used to send and receive faxes and E-mail, to write memos and to keep an appointment calendar.


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  • An intelligent terminal, for example a PC: -

    • Performs a lot of the processing locally

    • You could use a PC, linked to a mainframe

  • A dumb terminal: -

    • Has very limited processing capabilities itself, but allows you to connect to a large powerful computer such as a mainframe.

    • When you process your data from the dumb terminal, it is the mainframe at the other end of the network that is performing all the calculations.


What is the difference between a pc and a mac

What is the difference between a PC and a Mac?

  • IBM invented the PC (Personal Computer) way back in 1981.

  • The term PC compatible relates to PCs manufactured by companies other than IBM that are compatible with the traditional PC specification.

  • In the early days, most PCs ran an operating system called DOS (Disk Operating System). These days most PCs will be running a version of Microsoft Windows (Win95, Win98, NT,Win2000,Win XP,Win Vista).


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  • The Apple Mac is a computer, but NOT a PC. It uses a different operating system, and requires special versions of application programs

  • In the early days the thing that really distinguished the Mac over the PC was the GUI (Graphical User Interface).


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