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Chapter Three Victims and Victimization. Criminology 9 th and 10th edition Larry J. Siegel. Victimology. The study of crime victims and their relationship to the criminal justice process. Question. CAN SOCIETY BE A VICTIM OF CRIME? IF SO, HOW?. The Problems of Crime Victimization.

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Chapter three victims and victimization

Chapter ThreeVictims and Victimization

Criminology 9th and 10th edition

Larry J. Siegel

© 2003 Wadsworth Publishing Co.


Victimology
Victimology

The study of crime victims and their relationship to the criminal justice process.


Question
Question

CAN SOCIETY BE A VICTIM OF CRIME?

IF SO, HOW?


The problems of crime victimization
The Problems of Crime Victimization

Pain

and

Suffering

Fear

System

Abuse

Antisocial

Behavior

Economic

Loss


Questions
Questions

IN ADDITION TO PROPERTY LOSS, HOW DOES CRIME AFFECT PRODUCTIVITY AND SOCIAL COSTS?

WHAT IS THE CYCLE OF VIOLENCE?





The nature of victimization

Prior Victimization

Social Ecology

of

Victimization

?

The Victim’s

Household

Victim Characteristics:

Gender, Age, Race, Marital and Social Status

The Nature of Victimization


Violent crime rates by age of victim
Violent Crime Rates by Age of Victim


Violent crime rates by race of victim
Violent Crime Rates by Race of Victim


Questions1
Questions

Does a person bear some of the responsibility

for his or her victimization,

e.g., lifestyle?

Should we blame the victim?


Lowest income are more likely to be victimized than the more affluent
Lowest Income Are More Likely to be Victimized than the More Affluent


Question1
Question

What factors predict

chronic victimization?


Three specific types of characteristics increase the potential for victimization
Three Specific Types of Characteristics Increase the Potential for Victimization

Target

Vulnerability

Target

Gratifiability

Target

Antagonism


Theories of Victimization Potential for Victimization


Questions2
Questions Potential for Victimization

According to the victim precipitation perspective, what is the difference between

active and passive precipitation?

Do you think that schools create a

“high risk” lifestyle for teenagers?

Are neighborhoodsorindividual characteristics more important for determining victimization?


Routine activity theory felson cohen

Motivated Potential for Victimization

offenders

Lacks capable

guardians

CRIME

Suitable targets

Routine Activity TheoryFelson & Cohen

The interaction of three factors!


The opportunity structure of crime
The Opportunity Structure of Crime Potential for Victimization


The government s response to crime victims
The Government’s Response Potential for Victimizationto Crime Victims

6th Amendment, U.S. Constitution

In all criminal prosecutions the accused shall enjoy the right to a speedy and

public trial, by an impartial jury of the State and district wherein the crime

shall have been committed, which district shall have been previously ascertained

by law, and to be informed of the nature and cause of the accusation; to be

confronted with the witnesses against him; to have compulsory process for

obtaining witnesses in his favor, and to have the assistance of counsel for his

defense.

Should the following be added to the Sixth Amendment?

“In every criminal prosecution, the victim shall have the right

to be present and to be heard

at all critical stages of the judicial proceedings.”


Victim service programs

Victim Potential for Victimization

Compensation

Victim

Advocates

Victim-Offender

Reconciliation

Programs

Public

Education

Victim

Counseling

Crisis

Intervention

Victim Service Programs

Forms of

Victim Services


Questions3
Questions Potential for Victimization

What is “target hardening?”

Do you think that self-protection in the form of

citizen firearm possession (defensive use)

is a reasonable victim prevention tactic?

What do studies show?

Do you think restorative justice is a legitimate answer to victims and society?


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