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African Nationalism. Pan-African Movements. Pan-Africanism. Started in the 1920’s Wanted unity for all Africans Wanted unity of all people in the world of African descent. Pan-Africanism. By the beginning of World War One only Liberia and Ethiopia were not under imperialistic control.

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African nationalism

African Nationalism

Pan-African Movements


Pan africanism
Pan-Africanism

  • Started in the 1920’s

  • Wanted unity for all Africans

  • Wanted unity of all people in the world of African descent


Pan africanism1
Pan-Africanism

  • By the beginning of World War One only

    Liberia and Ethiopia were not under imperialistic control.

  • Few African countries obtained independence until after World War Two.

  • Many Africans fought in WWII.

  • Africans resented being treated like 2nd class citizens.

  • Africans moved to cities and began to become exposed to nationalistic movements.

  • Africans wanted their own self-determination.


Ghana
Ghana

  • Known as the Gold Coast

  • Was a British Colony


Kwame nkrumah
Kwame Nkrumah

  • Leader was Kwame Nkrumah who was educated in America and inspired by Gandhi.

  • Nkrumah used non violent protest such as boycotts and strikes to drive the British out.

  • In 1957 Britain gave Ghana it’s independence.


Kwame nkrumah1
Kwame Nkrumah

  • Nkrumah becomes prime Minister and renames the Gold Coast to Ghana.

  • The name linked the new nation to it’s African past.

  • In 1963 Nkrumah creates the Organization of African Unity (OAU)

  • This organization promotes African unity and self-determination across Africa.


Kenya
Kenya

  • Leader for independence was Jomo Kenyatta.

  • Came from the Kibuyu nation which had been driven off their land.

  • Mau Mau Rebellion was a secret society of Kikuyu farmers that used violence to scare the British off their lands

  • Kenyatta was jailed by the British for not denouncing the Mau Mau Rebellion.

  • In 1963 Kenya gained it’s independence and Kenyatta was freed and became Prime Minister.


Algeria
Algeria

  • A French colony that had a million European settlers.

  • In the 1950’s a strong Muslim national movement began.

  • Fighting between the French and Algerian nationalist lasted from 1954 to 1962. (This was France’s Vietnam)

  • Public opinion in France was that Algeria should be free and in 1962 Algeria became a free nation.


Problems with independence
Problems with Independence

  • During imperialism European nations set up export type economies.

    • Economies depended on the export of raw materials.

      Cash Crops Raw materials


Problems with independence1
Problems with Independence

  • Many African nations still relied on these export goods.

    • Problem

      • When no demand/prices fall/countries become poor.


Problems with independence2
Problems with Independence

  • African nations relied on buying manufactured goods and had no industrial base.


Problems with independence3
Problems with Independence

  • African nations have to import manufactured goods and incurred a large debt.


Tribalism and nationalism
Tribalism and Nationalism

  • African boundaries had been set by imperialistic nations not African nations

    • Berlin Conference 1885.


Tribalism and nationalism1
Tribalism and Nationalism

  • Many tribes and nations were split by these European boundaries.

  • Because of these splits there is more loyalty to one’s tribe then the country they live in.


Nigeria
Nigeria

  • In Nigeria this tribalism lead to a civil war.

  • More than 200 ethnic groups live within Nigeria.

  • During independence many of these tribes fought for control of the country.


Nigeria1
Nigeria

  • The two main groups fighting for control were the

    • Muslim Hausa and Fulani people of the north

      • Vs.

    • Christian Ibo and Yoruba of the south

    • In 1966 20,000 Ibo were massacred by the Hausa controlled government.

    • In a several year period about 1 million people had been killed or starved to death.

    • Military leaders took control in the 70’s and 80’s

    • In 1999 Nigeria elected a civilian government.


Obstacles to progress in africa
Obstacles to Progress in Africa

  • Population and Poverty

    • Population explosion

    • Widespread hunger


Obstacles to progress in africa1
Obstacles to Progress in Africa

  • Political Problems

    • Power hungry and greedy leaders

    • Military takeovers

    • Harsh dictators

    • Ethnic and regional conflict.


Obstacles to progress in africa2
Obstacles to Progress in Africa

  • Economic Dependence

    • Need for foreign aid

    • Need for imported goods

    • High debt


Obstacles to progress in africa3
Obstacles to Progress in Africa

  • Land and Climate

    • Too much or too little rain

    • Poor soil

    • Tropical diseases

    • Desert climate


Obstacles to progress in africa4
Obstacles to Progress in Africa

  • Economic Policies

    • Failed socialist economy

    • Cash crops instead of food crops

    • Lack of funding for rural areas.


Africa s future
Africa’s Future

  • Africa shows great potential

    • Many African nations have moved from a socialist economy to a mixed economy

    • Mining for resources such a gold and diamonds

    • Countries have built factories to process both manufactured and agricultural goods.

    • Improvements in transportation and communications.


South africa

South Africa

End to Apartheid


Apartheid
Apartheid

  • Apartheid was a policy created by the white South African government in 1948, stated that the races (black and white) had to be separated.


Apartheid1
Apartheid

  • The laws

    • Black Africans and other non-whites had to live in certain zones of the country.

    • There were separate trains, beaches, schools, restrooms and other areas for whites and non-whites.

    • Interracial marriages were banned.


Apartheid2
Apartheid

  • Apartheid was similar to Jim Crow Laws of segregation in the United States.


Apartheid3
Apartheid

  • Reasons for Apartheid

    • The government wanted to maintain control of both the government and economy.

    • Non-whites were not allowed to run for office or vote.


South africa1
South Africa

  • For 350 years South Africa had been ruled by either the Dutch or the British.

  • In 1910 Britain gave South Africa it’s independence.

  • At that time the whites held all the political and economic power in South Africa.


South africa2
South Africa

  • In 1912 the African National Congress (ANC) a black political party was formed.

  • The ANC was outlawed by the all white government.

  • The ANC stood out against apartheid.


South africa3
South Africa

  • The ANC used boycotts and nonviolent protest against the policies of South Africa.

  • The ANC tried to use legal means to bring about change, without success.


Nelson mandela
Nelson Mandela

  • Mandela became one of the leaders of the ANC.

  • In 1960 during a peaceful protest and the protestors were fired on and 60 were killed. This was known as the Sharpeville Massacres.

  • Mandela then formed the “Spear of the Nation” movement. A violent movement against the South African government

  • The movement an underground military group that campaigned against apartheid.


Nelson mandela1
Nelson Mandela

  • In 1964 Mandela was sentenced to life in prison when the ANC was banned and it’s leaders imprisoned.

  • Mandela became a symbol of freedom.

  • In 1990 Mandela was finally released from prison

  • In 1994 Mandela was elected President of South Africa.


South africa4
South Africa

  • Another leader who played a role in ending apartheid in South Africa were Archbishop Desmond Tutu.

  • Tutu along with other leaders were able to convince foreign nations to limit trade with South Africa.

  • The United Nations placed an arms embargo on South Africa.

  • The Olympic Committee banned athletes from participation

  • International businesses left South Africa

  • Musicians refused to play in Sun City and did benefit concerts for the blacks in South Africa.


Changes
Changes

  • The nonviolent protest began to have an effect on the economy of South Africa.

  • In 1989 F.W. de Klerk was elected President of South Africa and determined that reform was long past due.

  • de Klerk

    • legalized the ANC

    • Released Mandela

    • Created a new constitution ending segregation laws

    • Opened up free elections in 1994


South africa5
South Africa

  • In 1993 both Mandela and de Klerk won the Nobel Peace Prize.

  • In 1994 Mandela was elected President while de Klerk was elected Deputy.


South africa6
South Africa

  • Today there are still tensions in South Africa not only between blacks and whites but other ethnic groups.


South africa7
South Africa

  • In your small groups you must read the civil protest assignment and answer the questions that go along with the scenarios-First answer the question on your own and then discuss with the group

    • You need to be honest and realistic with your answers. It is safe to say that you would do or not do something in the safety of a classroom but you must take yourself out of the context of the classroom and into the world around you

  • On a piece of poster paper write out the answer that your group has come up with for each question

  • Finally you will pick one person to be a group spokesperson as to what your group would do with each question/scenario


Truth and reconciliation commission
Truth and Reconciliation Commission

  • The Truth and Reconciliation Commission (TRC) was a court-like body assembled in South Africa after the end of apartheid.

  • Anybody who felt they had been a victim of violence could come forward and be heard

  • Those who committed violence could also give testimony and request amnesty (freedom) from prosecution.

  • The TRC was a crucial component of the transition to full and free democracy in South Africa was generally regarded as very successful.


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