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Laplace-Ganymede lander mission. LANDERS FOR GALILEAN SATELLITES ZIGZAG HISTORY OF THE ENDEAVOUR. LEV ZELENYI and OLEG KORABLEV. 05 March , 2013. Missions to the Jupiter System I. VOYAGER !!!! Galileo (1989-2003) JUNO polar orbiter launched Aug.2011

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missions to the jupiter system i
Missions to the Jupiter System I
  • VOYAGER !!!!
  • Galileo (1989-2003)
  • JUNO polar orbiter launched Aug.2011
  • Since 1996: ~20 cancelled proposals:
    • Europa Orbiter (NASA 2002)
    • Jupiter Icy Moons Orbiter (JIMO, NASA 2005)
    • Jovian Europa Orbiter (JEO, ESA 2007)

Around 2007:

  • NASA: Jupiter Europa orbiter mission (Flagship) + - SURFACE ELEMENT ??
  • ESA: Laplace (L-Class)
missions to the jupiter system ii
Missions to the Jupiter System II
  • NASA: Jupiter Europa Orbiter (JEO), planned to study Europa and Io.
  • ESA: Jupiter Ganymede Orbiter (JGO), planned to study Ganymede and Callisto
  • JAXA: Jupiter Magnetospheric Orbiter (JMO), planned to study Jupiter\'s magnetosphere.
  • Roscosmos: Europa Lander, planned to land on Europa\'s surface for in situ studies.

EJSM Europa Jupiter System Mission : 2008

slide4

EUROPA LANDER

RUSSIAN SPACE AGENCY

RUSSIAN ACADEMY OF SCIENCES

ICE COVER

“Without a surface element,

EJSM is just preparatory

for a very future mission

with goals really related

to ASTROBIOLOGY”

Olga Prieto-Ballesteros

Космос для человечества

why lander
WHY LANDER ??
  • SOVIET EXPERIENCE IN SOFT LANDINGS

(MOSTLY LAVOCHKIN ASSOCIATION ACHIEVMENTS)

1. MOON

  • first automatic return of lunar samples--3
  • first lunar rover -2
  • 2. MARS
  • -No successful landings
  • 3. VENUS !
  • FIRST AND LAST LANDINGS BY SOVIET VENERA”s
  • 4. Preparations for PHOBOS Landing
slide6

Luna 24

Luna 16, 20, 24

venera 9 14 results t o look through the clouds to descend and to land
Venera9-14 resultsTo look through the clouds, to descend, and to land

Venera 9-10 measured the solar flux at the surface – the basic figure to calculate greenhouse. Nightglow spectra. 1975

  • Venera11-12 measured atmospheric spectra and fluxes down to the surface. Mass spectrometer showed an anomaly = in 36Ar/40Ar ratio, and measured the isotopes of neon.

Gas-chromatographer measured CO and other minor constituents in the low atmosphere. Detection of electric activity; measurements of physical and chemical properties of clouds.

Спектры ИОАВ

Venus 11 dayside spectra

Colour panorama (Venera 13-14)

laplace europa lander mission i
Laplace-Europa Lander mission (I):

Development:

2008: Preliminary assessment

2008: Initial industrial study 2008

2009: Europa Lander workshop 2009

2010: radiation load/scenario/landing site assessment; lander payload definition

2011: further scenario development; orbiter payload definition; payload accommodation

Mission architecture:

  • Europa lander, full mass 1210 kg, target 50 kg of mass for science
  • Telecom and science orbiter, 50 kg science payload
  • Multiple fly-bys of Ganimede, Callisto and Europa;
  • Final circular orbit around Europa with a height of 100 km;
  • Soft landing, target surface mission duration 60 days. Surface analysis by drilling (30 cm depth) possibly melting probe (<5 kg). Orbiter supports telecommunication. Optional TM directly to Earth via VLBI
  • Target total radiation dose <100kRad behind 5 g/cm2 Al (300 kRad tolerant components)

Roscosmos IKI TSNIIMASH Lavochkin Assoc

laplace europa lander mission ii
Laplace-Europa Lander mission (II):

Resources:

  • 50 kg on the lander, including sample handling and (partially) radiation shield
  • 3.2 kbit/s via HGA to 70-m dishes
  • Lander data relay via orbiter
  • 50 kg on the orbiter, including (partially) radiation shield

Science Goals:

  • The main appeal of the present mission is search for life on or its signatures on Europa
    • Sample acquisition, concentration
    • Subsurface access
  • Establishing geophysical and chemical context
    • Biology-driven experiments should provide valuable information regardless of the biology results
  • Lander is to provide ground truth for remote measurements and enhance the detection limits
  • Orbiter: versatile remote observations; landing site characterization; Jupiter science
  • Proof-of-the-concept payloads
  • Lander:
  • 12 instruments  20 kg
  • 4-5 kg melting probe
  • Drill for 30-cm depth
  • Orbiter:
  • 6 instruments, incl. radioscience

Roscosmos IKI TSNIIMASH Lavochkin Assoc

from europa lander to ganymede lander
From Europa Lander to Ganymede Lander
  • An absolute need for the Orbiter for retranslation
  • No reconnaissance information on Europa because of NASA Europa Orbiter cancellation
  • Impossibility for the planned Russian 400-kg Europa Orbiter to fulfill both the reconnaissance and telecom functions
  • Moreover, 400-kg Europa Orbiter is incompatible with the telecom function only because of high radiation burden in orbit around Europa

 Ganymede Lander in coordination with ESA JUICE or a JOINT project with ESA

+

+

ganymede lander play safe
Ganymede Lander: play safe !
  • Detailed reconnaissance from JUICE for choosing the Ganymede Lander landing site
  • Landing using ESA Visual Navigation system
  • Telecommunication via JUICE, if logistics permit
  • Dedicated small (?) Ganymede orbiter for telecommunication and limited science

+

+

+

+

science objectives
Science objectives
  • Characterize Ganymede as planetary object including its habitability
  • Study the Jupiter system as an archetype for gas giants
1 why is ganymede an habitable world
1. Why is Ganymede an habitable world

Научные задачи: Обитаемость Солнечной системы

Why are Ganymede and Europa habitable worlds ?

Возможна ли жизнь на Европе и Ганимеде?

  • Необходимые составляющие
  • Жидкая вода
  • Элементы
  • Энергия
  • Время

The habitable zone is not restricted to the Earth’s orbit…

Surface/Deep habitats

Deep habitats

Deep habitats

science objectives1
Science objectives
  • From direct search for life on Europa to determining the habitability of Ganymede
    • Establishing geophysical and chemical context for habitability
    • Lander is to provide the ground truth for remote measurements and enhance the detection limits
  • Orbiter:
    • Complement JUICE (2-points observations, etc)
    • High-resolution measurements of target areas
    • Others…
europa lander model payload
Europa Lander model payload

20315g

Largely applicable to Ganymede?

ganymede surface science
Ganymede surface science
  • A set of instruments on the Lander
    • Assume max mass of instruments and aux systems of 50 km to include:
      • instruments;
      • sampling device(s);
      • Deployment
      • Data handling
      • Radiation protection for instruments out of common compartment
  • Penetrator(s)
slide17

Landing scheme +IMPACTOR

2007 presentation

penetrator s
Penetrator(s)?
  • To be released from the orbit
  • Mass 5-15 kg
  • Payload <2 kg
orbiter payload
Orbiter payload
  • Reconnaissance
    • Full mapping from JUICE
    • Landing sites/target areas
    • WAC+HRC
    • What resolution required ? Meters ? (orbit not yet defined…) compare to JUICE final orbit (200 km polar), 5 µrad IFOV
  • Magnetometer
    • Boom of several meters!
  • Radioscience?
  • Some plasma instruments
  • Some optical instruments/ others JUICE losers
  • More info after the JUCIE selection

 To define requirements on the Orbiter

thanks for attention
THANKS FOR ATTENTION)

Европа

Ио

Ганимед

Каллисто

Космос для человечества

lander instruments systems
Lander instruments/systems
  • Set of context instruments
    • Panoramic camera (stereo, filters or color)
    • Various sensors (temperature, conductivity, radiation, etc)
  • Geophysical package
    • Seismometer
    • Magnetometer
  • Geochemistry
    • Contact (GCMS, Laser Ablation/Raman, XRD/XRS, …)
    • Sampling system: robotic arm
    • Remote (IR spectroscopy)
sampling mechanisms
Sampling/mechanisms
  • Robotic arm with sampling device
    • Heritage: Phobos-Grunt, Luna-Resource
    • Mass: 3-5 kg (including commanding?)
    • Chomic-type perforator (mass-?)
    • Scoop/sampling cylinder (?)
    • Dedicated context and close-up cameras (mass ~ 500g)
    • APX-type instrument(s) (mass ~500 g)
  • Common sample preparation system for GCMS, laser ablation, XRD, etc ???
  • Mast for panoramic camera/IR spectrometer
    • Stereo camera (type Phobos, Space-X)
    • High-resolution camera (Type ExoMars)
    • IR spectrometer (type LIS, or ISEM
  • Magnetometer boom
  • No drilling on the lander
geophysical package
Geophysical package
  • Seismometer
    • No need for a state-of-the-art Mars-type device
    • Two-axis
    • Lognonnee-type or Manukin-type?
    • Mass: <2 kg (?)
    • Deployment required or placement on the foot suffice?
    • To include tiltmeter?
  • Magnetometer
    • Keep mass within 1 kg
    • Deployment necessary!
orbiter payload1
Orbiter payload
  • Reconnaissance
    • Full mapping from JUICE
    • Landing sites/target areas
    • WAC+HRC
    • What resolution required ? Meters ? (orbit not yet defined…) compare to JUICE final orbit (200 km polar), 5 µrad IFOV
  • Magnetometer
    • Boom of several meters!
  • Radioscience?
  • Some plasma instruments
  • Some optical instruments/ others JUICE losers
  • More info after the JUCIE selection

 To define requirements on the Orbiter

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