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HYDROELECTRIC ENERGY. Renewable Energy Resources 2008. António F. O. Falcão. HYDRO ENERGY RESOURCE Total resource: (about 15 times total world hydroelectric production Technical potential: about: Total world electricity consumption: 16 400 TWh.

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HYDROELECTRIC ENERGY

Renewable Energy Resources

2008

António F. O. Falcão


  • HYDRO ENERGY RESOURCE

  • Total resource: (about 15 times total world hydroelectric production

  • Technical potential: about:

  • Total world electricity consumption: 16 400 TWh

SOLAR ENERGY flux on the Earth surface:

About 25% consumed in evaporation of water

Almost all this energy is released in water vapour condensation (clouds, rain) & radiated back into outer space

Only 0.06% remains as potential energy stored in water that falls on hills and mountains



15,8% of world electrical energy consumption

Based on average output 1999-2002

Source: G. Boyle, Renewable Energy, 2004.


Technical potential

Economic potential

Exploited potential

North & Central

America

Australasia/

Oceania

Europe

Asia

South America

Africa

Exploited hydro potential by continent


Weir and intake (dique ou açude)

Canal

(canal)

Forebay tank

(câmara de carga)

Penstock

(conduta forçada)

Power house

(casa das máquinas)

Small hydro site layout


Large hydro

10 MW

Small hydro

500 kW

Mini-hydro

100 kW

Micro-hydro

Note: there are other definitions.


Small hydroelectric plants (< 10 MW)

World totals

  • Installed capacity (GW) in small hydroelectric plants:

  • China  26

  • Japan  3.5

  • Austria, France, Italy, USA > 2 each

  • Brazil, Norway, Spain > 1 cada

  • Portugal  0.3 (about 100 plants)

  • TOTAL 50 to 60 GW



A European countries

= gross head (altura de

queda bruta) in metres

Canal

= gross head

(altura de queda bruta)

L = losses in canal, pennstock, in metres

Pennstock

= net head (altura de queda disponível)

Turbine

B

Q = flow rate or intake (caudal), in m3/s

= gross power (potência bruta), in Watts

= power available to turbine

turbine efficiency

= turbine power output

= electrical power output

electrical efficiency


Hydraulic turbine European countries

rated

H = (net) head

Q = flow rate

N = rotational speed

N, H = constant

Dimensional analysis

Q

(Dimensionless) specific speed

Ω is directly related to geometry (type) of turbine


Francis European countries

Pelton

Kaplan

Rotors of hydraulic turbines with different specific speeds Ω.


Correspondence European countries between specific speed Ω

and type of hydraulic turbine (Pelton, Francis, Kaplan)


Pelton turbines European countries (low Ω)

  • Usually:

  • High H

  • Small Q


Twin jet Pelton turbine European countries

wheel or runner

nozzle

pennstock



Francis turbines European countries (medium Ω)


Francis turbine European countries

Spiral casing

runner

Guide vanes

draft tube


Reversible Francis pump-turbine European countries

In times of reduced energy demand, excess

electrical capacity in the grid (e.g. from wind turbines) may be used to pump water, previously used to generate power, back into an upper reservoir.

This water will then be used to generate electricity when needed. This can be done by a reversible pump-turbine and an electrical generator-motor.


Kaplan turbines European countries (high Ω)

  • Usually:

  • Low H

  • Large Q


Kaplan turbine European countries

Electrical generator

Blade angle can be controlled

spiral casing

Guide vanes

runner


Propeller turbine European countries (small power plants)

Simple control: rotor blades are fixed

Kaplan turbine

Double control

Guide-vane control

Rotor-blade control


A variant of the Kaplan turbine: the horizontal axis European countries

Bulb turbine

Used for very low heads, and in tidal power plants

guide vanes

Tidal plant of La Rance, France


Cross flow turbine also known as mitchel banki and ossberger turbine
Cross-flow turbine European countries (also known as Mitchel-Banki and Ossberger turbine)

  • Used in small hydropower plants.

  • The water crosses twice (inwards and outwards) the rotor blades.

  • Cheap and versatile.

  • Peak efficiency lower than for conventional turbines.

  • Favourable efficiency-flow curve.


Cross flow turbine
Cross-flow turbine European countries



H European countries (m)

Q (m3/s)

Ranges of application of Pelton, Francis and Kaplan turbines (adapted from Bureau of Reclamation, USA, 1976). Recommended rotational speeds are submultiples of 3000 rpm, for sinchronous generators.


  • How to estimate the European countries type and size of a turbine, given (rated values of):

  • H = (net) head,

  • Q = flow rate,

  • N = rotational speed ?

Type (geometry)


Pelton turbine European countries

D

Diameter D


Francis and Kaplan turbines European countries

D

Specific diameter

(dimensionless)


1.0 European countries

Pelton

0.8

Cross-flow

Efficiency

0.6

Kaplan

Francis

Propeller

0.4

0.2

0.0

0.0

0.2

0.4

0.6

0.8

1.0

Flow rate as proportion of design flow rate

Part-flow efficiency of small hydraulic turbines


HYDROLOGY European countries

  • Watershed (of hydropower scheme) (bacia hidrográfica)

  • Flow (rate) (caudal)

  • Basic hydrological data required to plan a (small) hydropower scheme:

  • Mean daily flow series at scheme water intake for long period (~20 years).

  • This information is rarely available.

  • Indirect procedures are often necessary.


Power plant European countries

Stream-gauging station

  • Indirect procedure:

  • Usually consists of transposition of sufficiently long (≥20 years) flow-records from other watershed (bacia hidrográfica) equipped with a stream-gauging station (estação de medição de caudal).

  • Watershed of hydropower scheme and water shed of stream-gauging station should be located in same region, of similar area, with similar hydrological behaviour (similar mean annual rain fall level) and similar geological constitution.

  • Rain gauges(medidores de precipitação) should be available inside (or near) both watersheds, and be used for simultaneous rain-fall measurements.


Relation between annual precipitation and runoff at stream-gauging station (per unit watershed area)

By transposition → relationship between annual precipitation and power-plant flow rate at hydro-power scheme.


Mean annual flow duration curve stream-gauging station (per unit watershed area)

mean annual flow rate

Time fraction flow rate is equalled or exceeded

Dimensionless form of the mean annual flow duration curve


ENERGY EVALUATION – CASE 1 stream-gauging station (per unit watershed area)

  • Water reservoir has small storage capacity.

  • Run-of-the-river plant(central de fio de água).

  • Case of many (most?) small hydropower plants.

  • Storage capacity is neglected.

  • Energy evaluation from the flow duration curve.

  • No time-series (day-by-day prediction) of power output.

  • At most, seasonal variations are to be predicted.


Run-of-river plant and flow duration curve. stream-gauging station (per unit watershed area)

Max. turbine flow

Min. turbine flow

Ecological flow

Time-fraction flow rate is equalled or exceeded


Run-of-river hydropower plant stream-gauging station (per unit watershed area)(fio de água)

  • Required data for energy evaluation:

  • Flow duration curve for hydropower scheme.

  • Maximum and minimum turbine flow rates (to be specified from turbine characteristic curves).

  • Ecological discharge (and others, required for the consumption between the weir and the turbine outlet).

  • Head loss L in diversion circuit as function of flow rate.

  • Efficiency curves of turbine and electrical equipment.


Maximum and minimum turbine flow rates to be decided based on turbine size and efficiency curve.

1.0

Pelton

0.8

Cross-flow

Efficiency

0.6

Kaplan

Francis

Propeller

0.4

0.2

0.0

0.0

0.2

0.4

0.6

0.8

1.0

Flow rate as proportion of design flow rate

Part-flow efficiency of small hydraulic turbines


ENERGY EVALUATION - CASE 2 on turbine size and efficiency curve.

  • Second case: water reservoir (lagoon) has significant or large capacity.

  • Case of some small and most large hydropower plants.

  • Storage capacity must be taken into account.

  • Energy evaluation is based on the simulation of a scenario: daily (or hourly) flow-series and exploitation rules.

  • Basically the computation consists in the step-by-step numerical integration of a differential equation (equation of continuity).


Hydropower plant with storage capacity on turbine size and efficiency curve.

  • Required data for energy evaluation:

  • Time-series of flow into the reservoir (simulated scenario).

  • Maximum and minimum turbine flow rates (to be specified from turbine characteristic curves).

  • Ecological discharge (and others, required for the consumption between the weir and the turbine outlet).

  • Head loss L in diversion circuit as function of flow rate.

  • Efficiency curves of turbine and electrical equipment.

  • Reservor stage-capacity curve (surface elevation versus stored water volume).

  • Exploitation rules (e.g. concentrate energy production in periods of higher tariff or higher demand).


Exercise on turbine size and efficiency curve.

  • Consider a small run-of-river hydropower plant.

  • Specify the turbine type and size.

  • Evaluate the annual production of electrical energy.

  • Assume:

  • Annual-average flow into reservoir.

  • Flow duration curve.

  • Gross head Hb .

  • Loss L in hydraulic circuit.

  • Efficiency curve of turbine, and rated & minimum turbine flow.

  • Efficiency of electrical equipment.

  • Ecological flow rate.


Exercise on turbine size and efficiency curve.

or

F(q) is fraction of time q is exceeded.

is probability density function.

Time fraction flow rate is equalled or exceeded τ

= probability of occurrence of flow between q and q + dq .


k on turbine size and efficiency curve. = shape parameter

c = scale parameter

Exercise

Choice of function F(q)

Weibull distribution(widely used in wind energy):


Exercise on turbine size and efficiency curve.

Choice of efficiency-flow curve for turbine (typical small Francis turbine)

Set a minimum value for the turbine efficiency, e.g. 20% efficiency.

Set the minimum value of the turbine flow rate accordingly.


Exercise on turbine size and efficiency curve.

Annual-averaged electrical power output (SI units):


Exercise on turbine size and efficiency curve.

Total electrical energy produced in one year:


Exercise on turbine size and efficiency curve.

  • Procedure (suggestion)

  • Fix annual-averaged flow rate into reservoir, e.g.

  • Fix gross head, e.g.

  • Fix head loss, proportional to ,e.g. such that loss equal to a few percent of gross head

  • Fix flow duration curve, e.g. based on Weibull distribution

  • Fix turbine type, turbine efficiency curve and

  • Fix minimum (dimensionless) turbine flow rate

  • Fix ecological flow rate

  • Assume

  • Compute

  • Make comparisons as appropriate; look for “optimum” value of


Some results from Exercise on turbine size and efficiency curve.

Ecological flow rate = 0

Head losses = 0

k = 1.6 shape parameter of Weibull distribution

Cross-flow turbine

Francis turbine

rated

rated

annual-averaged

Annual-averaged

Annual-averaged

Francis

Cross-flow


The two largest hydropower plants in the world on turbine size and efficiency curve.

Three Gorges Dam, China

Itaipu, Brazil-Paraguay


THREE GORGES DAM – on turbine size and efficiency curve.The largest hydropower plant in the world

  • Yangtze River, China.

  • Construction: started in 1994; to be completed in 2009.

  • Dam - length: 2309m; height: 185m

  • Reservoir – length: 600km

  • About 1.5 million people had to be relocated


Three Gorges Dam hydropower plant on turbine size and efficiency curve.

  • Installed power: 22500 MW

  • 34×700 MW Francis turbines


Itaipu hydropower plant, Paraná River, Brazil-Paraguay on turbine size and efficiency curve.

Construction: 1984-91

Reservoir area: 1350 km2

Total dam length: 7235 m

Dam height: 196 m

Installed power: 12870 MW

18 Francis turbines of 715 MW


  • Principais bloqueios ao desenvolvimento de PCHs na EU on turbine size and efficiency curve.

  • Processo de licenciamento

  • Exigências específicas locais

  • Financiamento

  • Ligação à rede eléctrica

  • Venda de electricidade produzida

  • Quadro regulador incerto

  • Ausência de informações correctas

  • Recrutamento e formação de técnicos


  • Principais bloqueios em Portugal on turbine size and efficiency curve.

  • (FORUM Energias Renováveis em Portugal, 2002)

  • Dificuldades na obtenção de licenciamentos, sujeitos a um processo extremamente complexo, onde intervêm, sem aparente coordenação, diversas instituições e ministérios.

  • Dificuldade na ligação à rede eléctrica nacional por insuficiência da mesma e, ainda, por outras dificuldades processuais e operacionais.

  • Ausência de critérios objectivos na emissão de pareceres de diversas entidades e na apreciação dos estudos de carácter ambiental.

  • Eventual opinião ou intervenção negativa de agentes locais.

  • Dificuldades de maios humanos na Administração para tratamento dos processos de licenciamento.

  • "Em 2001, a situação podia resumir-e a um impasse quase completo no licenciamento das PCHs" (situação pouco diferente da actual).


  • Aspectos económicos on turbine size and efficiency curve.

  • Maiores alturas de queda são factor favorável (menores caudais para a mesma potência, menores custos de equipamento).

  • Frequentemente maiores alturas ocorrem em zonas menos habitadas (consumo local, ligação à rede).

  • Na Europa, a maior parte dos melhores locais (maiores quedas) já estão aproveitados.

  • Muito longo período de vida (frequentemente  50 anos) com pequenos custos de operação e manutenção. Investimentos nas grandes hídricas em geral do Estado.

  • Mas a análise económica (investidores privados) baseia-se em amortizações em 10 - 20 anos.


Costs of installation of small hydropower plants on turbine size and efficiency curve.

Comparison: cost of installation of a large onshore wind turbine (> 1MW): about 1.0 - 1.1 M€/MW.

Note that lifespan of wind turbine (20-25 years?) is probably shorter than lifespan of a hydro plant.


US$/kW on turbine size and efficiency curve.

kW installed

Range of costs for small hydropower projects.


Small hydropower : specific costs of installed capacity on turbine size and efficiency curve.

€/kW

Head (m)


ENVIRONMENTAL IMPACT - 1 on turbine size and efficiency curve.

The impact of the large hydropower plants is probably greater (afecting larger areas) than any other power plants (not necessarily worse impact).

The impact from small plants (per unit power) is not necessarily smaller than from large ones.

This impact is important during construction and during operation.

Do not forget that any renewable has environmental impact, namely concerning construction/production phaes (energy and materials are required).

The large hydro plants change the ecology over large areas.

  • Beneficial effects:

  • Replaces fossile-fuel power plants (reduce greenhouse gases & acid rain).

  • Flood control (especially plants with large reservoir).

  • Irrigation.

  • Valued amenity and visual improvement.


ENVIRONMENTAL IMPACT - 2 on turbine size and efficiency curve.

  • The most obvious impact of large hydro-electric dams is the flooding of vast areas of land, much of it previously forested or used for agriculture.

  • Large plants required the relocation of many people (Aswan, Nile river: 80000; Kariba, Zambesi river: 60000; Three Gorges Dam, Yangtze river: 1.5 million).

  • In large reservoirs behind hydro dams, decaying vegetation, submerged by flooding, may give off large quantities of greenhouse gases (methane).

  • Damming a river can alter the amount and quality of water in the river downstream of the dam, as well as preventing fish from migrating upstream. These impacts can be reduced by requiring minimum flowsdownstream of a dam, and by creating fish ladders which allow fish to move upstream past the dam.

  • Silt (sediments), normally carried downstream to the lower reaches of a river, is trapped by a dam and deposited on the bed of the reservoir. This silt can slowly fill up a reservoir, decreasing the amount of water which can be stored and used for electrical generation. The river downstream of the dam is also deprived of silt which fertilizes the river's flood-plain during high water periods.


  • Basic bibliography on turbine size and efficiency curve.(in addition to pdf files available at site of Renewable Energy Resources):

  • Janet Ramage, “Hydroelectricity”, in: Renewable Energy (Godfrey Boyle ed.), Oxford University Press, 2004, p. 147-194. ISBN 0-19-926178-4.

  • M. Manuela Portela, “Hydrology”, in: Guidelines for Design of Small Hydroplants (Helena Ramos, ed.), 2000, p. 21-38. ISBN 972-96346-4-5 (available at CEHIDRO, IST).


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