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2009 EGSA Fall Technical & Marketing Conference. Application of Micro Turbines & Smart Grid for Municipal Buildings. www.preon.com. Presented by Tim Tawoda. Outline. Technology Basics: Micro Turbine, Absorption Chiller & Smart Grid
Presented by Tim Tawoda
Weighs 4,000 lbs
Turbine assembly weighs 200 lbs
Heat for Absorption Chiller or Boilers
68 k RPM
Like Solar and Wind Power, Micro Turbines are a form of “Distributed Generation”
Controls & Communications
Electric Utility Grid
Reciprocating Engine Generators (also known as “Internal Combustion” Engine Generators) vs Micro Turbine Generators
FuelEnvironment is Main Driver
MT CHP = Micro Turbine Combined Heat & Power
67% Total Waste
Line Loses 9%
33% Delivered Electricity
4,800 GW worldwide
4,800 GW worldwide
T&D and Transformers (to End User):
4,368 GW worldwide
Normal City Application: Utility Natural Gas (NOT “Renewable” Gas) as fuel source
*However, MT CAN Operate on “Renewable” Gas:
MT operating on coal bed methane @ 4,000 feet and -40 def F.
Why Natural Gas vs “Renewable” Gas for Cities? Natural Gas is readily available and consistent via Utility Gas Grids – HOWEVER, Technology Advances is changing this!
MT operating on landfill gas
Municipal Pyrolization Plants may be around the corner: solid waste converted to free energy
Coal Gasification Plant
Natural Gas From Utility Grid
Smart Grids allows City to aggregate all base load (“green” coal gasification plant) and supplemental Renewable Energies. Micro Turbines run on “syn” gas and methanol created by coal gasification plant; gas is blended with utility gas for redundancy/reliability
ARA = American Recovery Act = Federal Stimulus
http://www.dsireusa.org/ This Link Provides an Update on Grants, Credits and Subsidies State-by-State
ARA: Micro Turbines Operating on “Renewable” Gas or Bio Diesel qualify for 30% vs 10% ARA Grants
Example: 200 kW CHP Plant: 2 x 100 kW Micro Turbines + 60 Tons of AC; Average Electrical Consumption: 150 kW
Ideal MT CHP Cost Metrics: Expensive Electric Utility & Cheap Natural Gas Utility
Electric Utility Consumption decreased by 2.8% in 2009: USDOE
Electric Utility Cost INCREASED by 4.2 in 2009: USDOE
The Key to MT CHP Economics: Micro Turbines produce 2.72 X’s as much output energy as traditional power plants
“US Estimated Gas Reserves have surged by 35%; US holds far larger reserves than previously thought. The jump is the largest increase in the 44-year history of reports from the committee”: Potential Gas Committee – Wall Street Journal 6-18-9
US Reserves increased due to Shale Gas deposits: technological advances make gas @ 4,500’ depth viable
If Cities used Landfill, WWTP and Bio Gas: cost of energy is Zero $
Traditional Police Station
Chicago Police Station
Dual Primary Power: Electric AND Natural Gas
Secondary Power: Diesel Genset
Potential Enhancements: a.) Secondary Power via Micro Turbine with LP (Eliminate Diesel Genset); b.) Redundant AC with Absorption Chillers
Lowers Stress on Local Electric Utility Grid
On a NATIONAL LEVEL, United States becomes less dependent (more SECURE) when utilizing renewable fuels (bio gas, digester gas, landfill gas and bio diesel ) OR CBM, Shale gas and domestic natural gas. CBM, Shale gas and domestic natural gas and LP, unlike oil and diesel fuel, are very plentiful.
MT CHP Plants + Smart Grid provides the ultimate City Power Infrastructure
Micro Turbine CHP Plants
Spec Engineer works with vendors on equipment sizing and selection; Contract award based on “bid-spec” or “Performance Contract”.
Security or Environ Criteria Met; Funding Alternative Made; City Consensus for MT CHP
City instructs Architect to embrace MT CHP; Architect allocates footprint and complies with LEED criteria
Architects instructs Spec Engineer to integrate MT CHP into Electrical and HVAC infrastructure
Continuity of Energy Czar office/tenure varies greatly City-to-City. Many smaller Cities have no Energy Czar.
A forceful Mayor is Key Ingredient for CHP Implementation
Bottom Line: Comprehensive Smart Grids could take decades to perfect. However, CHP can accomplish key objectives of Smart Grids today: demand reduction, improved reliability/security and better economics. CHP can be integrated with the Smart Grid as it evolves
Density of City Electric Loads Increasing. PC’s and Internet account for 2.5% of total U.S. power consumption but that number is doubling every 5 years. concentration is much greater in cities. Electric Plug-in Vehicles require 8 kWh electric re-charge per 40 miles. 100 cars recharging in the building garage could increase the demand by 800 kW. 10-30% increase in demand.
East Coast Blackout
MT Operating on Roof
Each new Chicago Police Station will have a 100 kW Micro Turbine on the roof: total of 12 new Stations
Building Electric Load
Future Export Power
Future export of Diesel Genset Power via GPC, Internet and Smart Grid
MT Turbine Exhaust to Boilers
Natural Gas Grid
Smart Controls replace numerous mechanical relays with a single solid state controller; accommodate export of aggregate diesel gensets/buildings in the future via “smart grid”.
Start with New Construction vs Rehabs: Easier to Move Lines on Paper vs Knocking Down Walls
Consider Police Stations: Smaller CHP Plants, Easy Use of Waste Heat due to 7 x 24 Habitation; Police Stations have need for Higher Security Benefit
Engage your Local Energy Integrator: