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Blackout in Sweden and Eastern Part of Denmark 2003-09-23. Sture Lindahl 2003-1 0 - 05 Industrial Electrical Engineering and Automation [email protected] The Nordel System. The Affected Region. Outage Cost. Interrupted power  5 000 MW Average outage time  4 hours

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Blackout in Sweden andEastern Part of Denmark2003-09-23

Sture Lindahl

2003-10-05

Industrial Electrical Engineering and Automation

[email protected]


The nordel system
The Nordel System

Sture Lindahl, LTH/IEA


The affected region
The Affected Region

Sture Lindahl, LTH/IEA


Outage cost
Outage Cost

  • Interrupted power  5 000 MW

  • Average outage time  4 hours

  • Outage cost  50 SEK/kWh

  • Total outage cost  1000 MSEK

Sture Lindahl, LTH/IEA


Consumption in sweden
Consumption in Sweden

  • Before outage  15 000 MW

  • Winter peak 25 000 - 27 000 MW

  • Section-4 power flow 2 200 MW

Sture Lindahl, LTH/IEA


Situation before disturbance
Situation before Disturbance

Sture Lindahl, LTH/IEA


Generation outages
Generation Outages

Gx

G1 & G2

G1, G2 & G3

G1 & G2

Sture Lindahl, LTH/IEA


Transmission outages
Transmission Outages

Sture Lindahl, LTH/IEA


The first event 12 30
The First Event (12:30)

  • The nuclear unit Oskarshamn G3 was ramped down from 1 135 MW to zero because of a problem with a valve in the feed-water system.

  • The ramping down of Oskarshamn G3 was initiated manually

  • The reduction of power took about one minute

Sture Lindahl, LTH/IEA


The first event 12 301
The First Event (12:30)

G3

Sture Lindahl, LTH/IEA


The system frequency
The System Frequency

Sture Lindahl, LTH/IEA


The system frequency1
The System Frequency

Sture Lindahl, LTH/IEA


The second event 12 35
The Second Event (12:35)

  • A disconnector in the 400 kV substation Horred failed (reason unknown) and caused a two-phase fault

  • Correct clearing of the fault was initiated from the busbar protection

  • The circuit breakers operated correctly

Sture Lindahl, LTH/IEA


R

R

T

R

Varmgång

Sture Lindahl, LTH/IEA

Bilaga 3


Damaged disconnector
Damaged Disconnector

Sture Lindahl, LTH/IEA


Damaged disconnector1
Damaged Disconnector

Sture Lindahl, LTH/IEA


The second event 12 351
The Second Event (12:35)

Busbar Fault

Sture Lindahl, LTH/IEA


The second event 12 352
The Second Event (12:35)

Sture Lindahl, LTH/IEA


Voltage level
Voltage Level

Sture Lindahl, LTH/IEA


Voltage level1
Voltage Level

Sture Lindahl, LTH/IEA


Voltage level2
Voltage Level

Sture Lindahl, LTH/IEA


Voltage level3
Voltage Level

Sture Lindahl, LTH/IEA


Power flow
Power Flow

Sture Lindahl, LTH/IEA


Power flow1
Power Flow

Sture Lindahl, LTH/IEA


Power flow2
Power Flow

Sture Lindahl, LTH/IEA


Power flow3
Power Flow

Sture Lindahl, LTH/IEA


Tap changers
Tap Changers

Sture Lindahl, LTH/IEA


Tap changers1
Tap Changers

Sture Lindahl, LTH/IEA


Tap changers2
Tap Changers

Sture Lindahl, LTH/IEA



The system frequency2
The System Frequency

Sture Lindahl, LTH/IEA


The system frequency3
The System Frequency

Sture Lindahl, LTH/IEA


What we saw of the black out

What we saw of the black-out

Voltages and frequency recorded on 23 September 2003 at Chalmers

(Math Bollen, 24-9-2003)


First a few words about the measurements.

These measurements were obtained by two different instruments

at two different locations in our building.

a Medcal monitor connected to the wall-outlet in my office (single

phase). This monitor records min, mean and max every minute.

Upon triggering a two-cycle sample of the waveform is obtained.

a Unipower monitor connected to the main busbar in our laboratory

(three phases). This monitor records min, mean and max every minute.

Upon triggering a 2.5-second record of the rms voltages is stored.

The clocks of the two monitors are not synchronous. The main voltage

dip (12:35 according to SvK) had the following time stamps:

Medcal: 12:41:06

Unipower: 12:31:11

Sture Lindahl, LTH/IEA


0.5-cycle rms voltages during and after the main dip

oscillation

points to instability!

normal dip due to

two-phase-to-ground fault

time stamp: 12:31:11

Unipower

Sture Lindahl, LTH/IEA


rms voltages six seconds later

cause of dips is unclear.

time stamp: 12:31:17

Unipower

Sture Lindahl, LTH/IEA


frequency recordings during the whole afternoon: the three curves show

maximum, minimum and average over each 1-minute period

the main disturbance around 12:30

minor disturbance

around 18:00

MedCal

Sture Lindahl, LTH/IEA


This shows the frequency variations during the first disturbance

in more detail

the main dip

was recorded here

loss of South Sweden

frequency remains high

due to loss of load

loss of Oskarhamn 3

loss of Ringhals 3+4

MedCal

Sture Lindahl, LTH/IEA


Recordings from odensala
Recordings from Odensala disturbance

Sture Lindahl, LTH/IEA


Voltage restoration
Voltage Restoration disturbance

  • The 400 kV network was essentially restored after 1 hour

Sture Lindahl, LTH/IEA


Genopretningen minut for minut
Genopretningen minut for minut disturbance

12.38 Elkraft System forbereder at sætte spænding på hele højspændingsnettet

13.20 Elkraft System venter på, at Kyndbyværket starter

13.41 Vi får tilladelse til at koble os til Sverige – men kun med et meget lille forbrug (max. 200 MW)

13.46 Østdanmark kobler til Sverige. Højspændingsnettet er i gang

Sture Lindahl, LTH/IEA


Genopretningen minut for minut1
Genopretningen minut for minut disturbance

13.54 Elkraft System giver tilladelse til, at en del af forbrugerne får strøm igen:

  • Københavns Energi kan tilkoble forbrugere svarende til 50 MW

  • NESA kan tilkoble forbrugere svarende til 50 MW

  • SEAS kan tilkoble forbrugere svarende til 25 MW

  • NVE kan tilkoble forbrugere svarende til 25 MW

Sture Lindahl, LTH/IEA


Genopretningen minut for minut2
Genopretningen minut for minut disturbance

14.15 Første kraftværksblok kører igen (Kyndbyværket)

14.16 Svenska Kraftnät melder, at vi kun må trække 100 MW fra Sverige

14.31 Asnæsværket blok 5 forsøger at starte, men kan ikke. Asnæsværket blok 2 forsøges herefter startet

14.53 Stigsnæsværket blok 2 havarerer ved opstart

14.57 Gasturbine på Masnedø kommer i gang (55 MW)

Sture Lindahl, LTH/IEA


Genopretningen minut for minut3
Genopretningen minut for minut disturbance

15.00 Københavns Energi får lov at give ekstra10 procent af forbrugerne strøm

15.22 Gasturbine på Kyndbyværket kommer i gang

15.25 Yderligere 10 procent af forbrugerne hos SEAS tilkobles

15.29 Endnu en gasturbine på Kyndbyværket kommer i gang

16.42 Københavns Energi får tilladelse til at give DSB’s fjerntog strøm

Sture Lindahl, LTH/IEA


Genopretningen minut for minut4
Genopretningen minut for minut disturbance

16.57 Systemet er stabilt nok, til at vindmøllerne gradvist kan tilkobles

18.18 En dieselgenerator på Kyndbyværket sætter ud

18.25 Asnæsværket blok 2 kommer i gang

18.33 Asnæsværket blok 5 havarerer ved opstart og er ikke kommet i gang endnu

19.05 NVE, NESA, KE og SEAS får tilladelse til at tilkoble resten af forbrugerne

Sture Lindahl, LTH/IEA


Conclusion
Conclusion disturbance

  • Outage of 20% of Sweden

  • Outage of 50% of Denmark

  • Voltage restoration time 1 hour

  • Load restoration was depending on start-up time of generating units

  • Outage cost about 1 000 MSEK

Sture Lindahl, LTH/IEA


Additional information
Additional Information disturbance

http://www.elkraft-system.dk/elkraft/dk/Nyheder.nsf

http//www.svk.se/

http://www.abebooks.com/

Sture Lindahl, LTH/IEA


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