10: Intelligence

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2. What is intelligence and can we measure it?. Definitions are fuzzy:Verbal ability, problem solving skills and the ability to adapt to and learn from life's everyday experiences' (Santrock, 2000)Hard to test - 3 problems:unitary or multifactorial?culture biaseffect of environment / genes.

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10: Intelligence

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1. 1 10: Intelligence Outline 3 issues: What is intelligence and how do we measure it? Does intelligence change over time How does our genetic inheritance interact with our environment?

2. 2 What is intelligence and can we measure it? Definitions are fuzzy: ‘Verbal ability, problem solving skills and the ability to adapt to and learn from life’s everyday experiences’ (Santrock, 2000) Hard to test - 3 problems: unitary or multifactorial? culture bias effect of environment / genes

3. 3 Problem 1: Unitary or multifactorial? Is intelligence a unitary or multifactorial concept? Binet - unitary concept -> IQ tests Originally: IQ = [MA/CA] x 100 (ration IQ) Now: comparison with children same age; average 100, sd=15 (deviation IQ) Spearman (1927) - g Others - multifactorial concept: Catell (1971, 1987) Caroll (1993) Thurstone (1938) Gardner (1983) Sternberg (1985)

4. 4 Distribution of IQ scores (From Bee, 2000)

5. 5 Hierarchical models Cattell, 1971 General intelligence (top of hierarchy) Fluid ability Acquisition of new information Grasping new relations Crystallised ability Accumulation of knowledge over lifespan

6. 6 Hierarchical models (Carroll, 1993)

7. 7 Multiple intelligences Thurstone (1938) 7 primary mental abilities Word fluency Verbal meaning Reasoning Spatial visualisation Numbering Rote memory Perceptual speed Gardner (1983, 1993) 8 frames of mind Linguistic Logical-Mathematical Spatial Bodily-kinesthetic Musical Interpersonal Intrapersonal Naturalist – ability to understand natural and man-made systems Evidence? Savant skills

8. 8 Sternberg’s TRIARCHIC theory Multidimensional Abilities Test: tested 3 components: Componential (or analytical) Planning, organising, remembering facts Experiential (or creative) Insight, ability to see connections Contextual (or practical) “street smarts”, practical solutions – which box of cereal is the best value?

9. 9 Wechsler scales Verbal tests Information Comprehension Arithmetic Similarities Vocabulary Digit span Performance tests Picture completion Picture arrangement Block design Object assembly Coding Mazes

10. 10 Problems Evidence Not a lot of evidence for different methods Lack of research? Lumpers vs splitters Lumpers: intelligence stems from one general ability Splitters: many separate kinds of relatively independent intelligence (modular?) Also: Hierarchical organisation of specific skills stemming from 1 or 2 factors. How many intelligences are there? We have contextual intelligence or musical intelligence Why not chess, law, writing, poetry intelligence?

11. 11 Problem 2: Cultural bias Different emphases on important components of intelligence (Rogoff, 1998, Serpell, 2000): West: abstract thinking and logic Kenya: responsible participation in life Uganda: one who knows what to do and follows it through Papua New Guinea: recall Caroline Islands: navigation by stars Language barriers

12. 12 Solution? Culture fair tests Ask fair questions - relevant to all Non-verbal tests: Raven’s Progressive Matrices Test Effective? Not very Cultural differences even in drawing (Anastasi & Urbina, 1996)

13. 13 Raven’s Progressive Matrices (From Thornton, 2002)

14. 14 Does intelligence change over time? Infant intelligence no verbal intelligence scales more items measuring perceptual motor development and social interactional abilities Gesell (1925, 1928) motor, language, adaptive, personal-social skills Bayley Scales of infant development Bayley (1969; 1993) 2 components: motor scale (e.g. crawling, climbing stairs) mental scale (e.g. response to sound, imitation, memory, problem solving, language comprehension and production)

15. 15 Does intelligence change over time? NO correlation between infant and IQ test scores (Anderson, 1939). But scales measure different things Other infant measure correlate with IQ: habituation experiments (Bornstein, 1989) attention (Bornstein & Krasnegor, 1989) Stability over time?

16. 16 Evidence for stability 3 yrs onwards – start to get consistency High correlations between IQ scores at 6, 8, 9 and 10 years High correlations between IQ in childhood and at 18 years -> conclude stability over time? Not necessarily

17. 17 Evidence against stability of intelligence over time Performance of a single child retaking same test at different ages CAN fluctuate McCall et al 1973: 1/3 children’s scores fluctuated by 30 points 1/7 children’s scores fluctuated by 40 points

18. 18 More evidence against stability Environmental influences affect intelligence: Abeccedarian project (Ramey & Campbell, 1984; Ramey and Ramey, 1998): effect of activities aimed at improving language, motor, social and cognitive skills BUT Lots of intervention programs with fraudulent claims (Eysenck, 1998) Claimed improvements not found

19. 19 How does our genetic inheritance interact with our environment? Research follows several lines MZ/MZ comparison (separated) MZ/DZ comparison Adopted children/Bio parents/Adoptive parents Family correlations Parent/child Siblings Environmental manipulation Inbreeding Heterosis

20. 20

21. 21 How does genetic inheritance work? 70-80% determination of IQ by heredity Assumption: 2 bright parents produce bright child BUT NOT STRICTLY TRUE Laws of heredity predict regression to the mean Children of bright parents will, on average, be bright – but less bright than parents

22. 22 Summary Issue 1: what is intelligence and can we measure it? Unclear what intelligence is almost certainly bound to be multifactorial but problems -> hard to measure Issue 2: is it stable over time? lots of evidence either way. Issue 3: nature-nurture debate general conclusion that 70-80% of IQ difference can be explained be genetic differences BUT: mustn’t make the mistake of interpreting this too simplistically

23. 23 Learning Outcomes & Reading Describe and evaluate theories of intelligence and the tests designed to measure it Debate the issue of whether intelligence is stable over time and be able to describe and evaluate the relevant research Be able to describe and evaluate studies that throw light on the interaction between genetic inheritance and environment. Essential Reading (on Digital Resources): Gardner , M. & Clark, E. (1992) The psychometric perspective on intellectual development in childhood and adolescence. In R. J. Sternberg & C. A. Berg (Eds).Intellectual development. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press Grigorenko, E.L. (2000). Heritabililty and intelligence In R. J. Sternberg (Ed). Handbook of intelligence. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. Meadows, S. (1993) The child as thinker. Hove: Routledge. Ch 3. pp.157-196 Further Reading: See pdf handout

24. 24 Questions to ask What are the problems with the measurement of intelligence? What do the different theories say about the nature of intelligence? What does the research suggest about the nature of intelligence? Is intelligence stable? How can theory and research help us deal with the measurement of intelligence?

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