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Role of nuclear power in India’s power-mix. Anil Kakodkar Department of Atomic Energy. Scenarios for Total Installed Power Capacity in India (DAE-2004 and Planning Commission-2006 studies). Three Stage Nuclear Power Programme. Globally Advanced Technology. Globally Unique.

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Role of nuclear power in india s power mix

Role of nuclear power in India’s power-mix

Anil Kakodkar

Department of Atomic Energy


Scenarios for total installed power capacity in india dae 2004 and planning commission 2006 studies
Scenarios for Total Installed Power Capacity in India(DAE-2004 and Planning Commission-2006 studies)


Three Stage Nuclear Power Programme

Globally Advanced Technology

Globally Unique

World class performance

  • Stage – I PHWRs

  • 14 - Operating

  • 4 - Under construction

  • Several others planned

  • Scaling to 700 MWe

  • Gestation period has been reduced

  • POWER POTENTIAL  10,000 MWe

  • LWRs

  • 2 BWRs Operating

  • 2 VVERs under

  • construction

  • Stage - III

  • Thorium Based Reactors

  • 30 kWth KAMINI- Operating

  • 300 MWe AHWR- Under Development

  • POWER POTENTIAL IS VERY LARGE

  • Availability of ADS can enable early introduction of Thorium on a large scale

  • Stage - II

  • Fast Breeder Reactors

  • 40 MWth FBTR - Operating since 1985

  • Technology Objectives realised

  • 500 MWe PFBR-

  • Under Construction

  • POWER POTENTIAL  530,000 MWe


Comparison of fuel characteristics
Comparison of Fuel Characteristics

  • Calorific valueof fossil fuels (kcal/kg)

    Domestic Coal: 4000, Imported Coal: 5400, Naphtha: 10500, LNG: 9500

  • Indian uranium-ore contains only 0.06% of uranium (Canada’s 18%), but this provides

    • 20times more energy per tonne of mined material than coal when uranium is used in once through open cycle inPHWRs

    • 1200 to 1400times more energy per tonne of mined material than coal when used in closed cycle based onFBRs

  • 1000 MWe Nuclear Power Plant needs movement of 12 trucks (10 Te/truck) of uranium fuel per year

  • 1000 MWe Coal Power Plant needs movement of 3,80,000 trucks (10 Te/truck) of coal per year



External Costs for various Electricity Generating Technologies

Nuclear Power and Sustainable Development, IAEA, April2006


10 Technologies

1

0.1

0.01

0.001

0.0001

Natural sources

Diagnostic medical X-ray examination

Atmospheric Nuclear testing

Nuclear Power Production

Worldwide annual per capita effective dose (mSv)

Nuclear Power and Sustainable Development, IAEA, April 2006


Relative environmental impact of different Technologies

Technologies of electricity generation

Existing coal

technologies

no gas cleaning

New coal

technologies

Biomass

Technologies

Nuclear

Natural gas

technologies

Wind

High

Air pollution impacts (PM10) and other impacts

Low

Low

High

Greenhouse gas impacts

Nuclear Power and Sustainable Development, IAEA,April 2006


Photovoltaic Technologies

Offshore wind

Onshore wind

Hypower

Oil

Natural gas

Coal

Nuclear

Nuclear Power and Sustainable Development, IAEA, April 2006


Overnight cost @ 2003 price level
Overnight Cost Technologies@ 2003 price level

1000 MW

1600

700

950

1000

700

Source NEA/ OECD Study, India: NPCIL Study


Levelised cost of generation paise kwh at 2005 06 price level
Levelised Cost of Generation TechnologiesPaise/ kWh at 2005-06 price level

Source MW Cr/ MW Years Lev/ Cost

Nuclear: 700 5.2 5 152

Coal : 500 4.0 3 164

Gas : 500 2.7 2 182

Assumptions:

Discount rate: 5%, PLF 80%

Gas @ 3$/ mmBtu,Coal:Delivered Rs1344/T

If uranium is available at international prices, levelised cost of nuclear generation can come down to about 115


Nuclear electricity generation and capacity addition since 1966

Nuclear Power and Sustainable Development, IAEA, April 2006


Fast Breeder Reactor 1966

500 MWe Fast Breeder Reactor – Construction launched on October 23, 2004


ADVANCED HEAVY WATER REACTOR 1966

5

2

3

6

4

17

15

8

7

10

1

11

9

13

12

14

16

• BASIC DATA

FUEL : U-233/THORIUM MOX + Pu-239/THORIUM MOX

COOLANT : BOILING LIGHT WATER

MODERATOR : HEAVY WATER

POWER : 300 MW(e)

920 MW(t)

1 Secondary Containment

2 Primary Containment

3 Gravity Driven Water Pool

4 Isolation Condenser

5 Passive Containment

Isolation Duct

6 Vent Pipe

7 Tail Pipe Tower

  • Structured peer review completed

  • Pre-licensing design safety appraisal by AERB in progress

8 Steam Drum

9 100 M Floor

10 Fuelling Machine

11 Deck Plate

12 Calandria with End Shield

13 Header

14 Pile Supports

15 Advanced Accumulator

16 Pre - Stressing Gallery

17 Passive Containment

Cooler


Proton 1966

Beam

Accelerator

Beam Channel

Collimator

Fission

233U Fission fragments

Accelerator based energy technology

  • Growth with Thorium systems

  • Transmutation of long lived radionuclides

LONG TERM R&D EFFORTS NEEDED


Compact High Temperature Reactor 1966

  • Fluid fuel substitutes (Hydrogen)

  • Other high temperature heat applications


Steady state superconducting tokamak (SST-1) 1966

Pictures of SST-1 Tokamak at IPR, Gandhinagar

  • BASIC OBJECTIVE IS TO STUDY PHYSICS OF PLASMA PROCESSES IN TOKAMAK UNDER STEADY STATE CONDITIONS

  • SST-1 HAS BEEN FABRICATED AND ASSEMBLED.

  • COMMISSIONING IS IN PROGRESS


Fusion Energy 1966

India is a member of ITER group

Schematic of the prototype fusion breeder reactor


Challenges and strategies
Challenges and strategies 1966

  • A country of the size of India cannot afford to plan its economy on the basis of large scale import of energy resources or energy technology

  • Indigenous development of energy technologies based

    on domestic fuel resources should be a priority for us.

  • Nuclear power must contribute about a quarter of the total electric power required 50 years from now, in order to limit energy import dependence in percentage terms at about the current level.


Thank You 1966


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