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European Exploration. Reasons for Exploration. Europeans come to the New World. To better understand the reasons for European exploration, think back to sixth grade social studies when you learned about. Cultural Identity and Nationalism. Cultural Identity.

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European Exploration

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European

Exploration


Reasons for Exploration

Europeans come to the New World


To better understand the reasons for European exploration, think back to sixth grade social studies when you learned about

Cultural Identity

and

Nationalism


Cultural Identity

cultural connection people have with one another

Nationalism

pride and devotion to your country


Remember that extreme nationalism can lead to

Conflict

And all of this can effect the

Balance of Power


Nationalism

A spirit of

was

brewing throughout Europe in the 1400’s, 1500’s, 1600’s,….

and continues today.


One way they could show their strength was to

Explore and claim new land


Spain

France

England

The “Big Three” countries in Europe who were competing for land were


All three countries explored for the same reasons---

“The Three G’s”

Gold

Glory

God


At this time, explorers were searching for

Gold


And once they began to explore the New World, they thought they would find lots of gold.


Nationalism and desire for gold caused the people to want

Glory

for their homeland.


The third reason they explored was to spread their religion.

God


Gold

Glory

God

So remember...“The Three G’s”

Gold

3 G's

Glory

God


Explorers


SHOW ME THE MONEY...or the gold!

  • From 1492-1519, Spain focuses on establishing colonies in the Indies.

  • Spaniards on expeditions heard there were great civilizations in the interior, which included great wealth.

  • Explorers looking for wealth were known as conquistadors.


COLUMBUS


Europe Eyes the Americas

  • Christopher Columbus lived during a time when Spain was at war and many people were in poverty.

  • Queen Isabella and King Ferdinand paid for Columbus to go on an expedition to find a new passage to China.

  • Expedition:a journey undertaken by a group of people

  • with a definite purpose


Christopher Columbus

King Ferdinand of Spain and Queen Isabella


“In 1492 COLUMBUS Sailed the Ocean Blue”

  • Columbus quickly learned the earth was round. He thought he could sail to Asia westward faster and easier than traveling eastward.

  • He could then establish profitable routes to Asia. (He could trade along the way.)

  • Queen Isabella thought this would be a great idea because it would establish trade with Asia ($) and would help spread the Catholic faith.


  • Columbus sighted land and thought it was the Indies.

  • He got off the boat and named (and called) the friendly people indios.

  • He wasn’t in the Indies…He was in the Bahamas!

  • He continued to sail on to find the riches he had promised the Spanish monarch. (He was also going to get to keep a portion of these riches for himself.)


  • On his voyages, Columbus established the first permanent colony on Hispaniola (named Santo Domingo).

  • Columbus did not find gold or the new passage to China, but his voyages did inspire others to seek their fortunes in America.


Columbus…not such a nice guy

  • Queen Isabella and King Ferdinand got word that Columbus and others had enslaved, tortured, and killed thousands of native Taino people in the Caribbean.

  • This angered the monarchs and made them withdraw their support for further explorations by Columbus.


THE BIG QUESTION

  • Did Columbus really discover America?

  • According to the Europeans, the answer is YES.

BUT

Weren’t the Indians already occupying parts of America, including our focus….TEXAS?


COLUMBUS’S FOUR VOYAGES


Columbus Finds Land


Cortes


Hernan Cortes

  • Cortes was a Spanish conquistador.

  • Conquistadores were soldiers and adventurers searching The 3 G’s

  • Cortes left Cuba in 1519, with the goal of conquering the Aztec Empire.


The Aztecs

  • The Aztecs were the most powerful Indian culture in all of Central America.

  • They were fierce warriors who worshipped the sun and performed human sacrifices.


Montezuma II

  • Montezuma was the leader of the Aztecs.

  • He ruled an empire that covered over 200,000 square miles.


Cortes Conquers the Aztecs

  • Cortes sailed from Spanish Cuba to the eastern coast of what is now Mexico.

  • Cortes and his 200 men, defeated an Aztec army of over 100,000.

  • They captured the Aztec city of Tenochtitlan, and built present day Mexico City on top of it.

  • This increased the wealth and power of Spain, greatly expanded its American empire and led to the founding of New Spain.


IMPORTANT 1519 EVENT AND THE CONSEQUENCES

  • Hernan Cortes, a Spanish explorer, conquered the Aztec empire

  • Wealth and power of Spain increased

  • Expanded the size of the Spanish empire

  • Led to the founding of New Spain

  • Mexico became a base of Spanish exploration


1519

Cortés and his army sail to what is now Mexico.

Short-Term Effects

Long-Term Effects

  • increased Spain’s power

  • established Mexico as a base from which Spain could launch explorations

  • expanded Spain’s American empire, which covered muchof North and South Americaby 1600

  • conquered the Aztec Empire

  • killed or enslaved many Aztec

  • gained Spain the Aztec’s wealth and land

  • built Mexico City on top of the ruins of Tenochtitlán, which became the capital of New Spain

  • increased the empire and wealth of Spain


The Spanish Come to Texas

  • Following Columbus’s lead, Spain established colonies in the Caribbean and Mexico. Reports of riches drew the explorers north to Texas where they established a successful mission.


PINEDA


Alonzo Alvarez de Pineda and Hernan Cortes

  • Pineda’s mission was to map the coastline of the Gulf of Mexico and establish a Spanish colony. He wasfirst to discover the Texas coastline.

  • Cortez, who was sent to find a city of gold, cut Pineda’s journey short. He saw Pineda as a threat to his journey, so he arrested some of Pineda’s men!

1519


IMPORTANCE OF PINEDA’S VOYAGE TO TEXAS

  • First known European to see and map the Texas coast

  • Established a settlement near present day Mexican city Tampico

  • Never landed in Texas

  • Led to further Spanish exploration of Texas


1519

Spanish explorer

Hernan Cortés

1519

Spanish explorer

Alonso Álvarez de

Pineda

1519

Spanish explorer

Ferdinand

Magellan

1519

begins his conquestof the AztecEmpire.

explores the Gulf ofMexico and mapspart of it.

begins the firstround-the-world

Voyage.


NARVAEZ


EXPERIENCES OF Narvaez

  • Set out in 1527 for Spain

  • Explored Tampa, Florida

  • Left his crew when they did not return


The Narvaez Expedition

  • In 1526 Panfilo de Narvaez was granted the land of Florida by the king of Spain.

  • His expedition traveled up the western coast of Florida. He then built rafts to sail to Mexico.

  • A hurricane in 1528 drowned many of the men at sea, including Narvaez.


Section Two

The Narvaez Expedition

  • Out of the 400 men and 82 horses that Narvaez started with on his expedition, only 80 or so survived the hurricane.

  • They arrived at Galveston Bay.

  • They were the first known Europeans to set foot in the present-day Texas.


THE ENDING OF THE NARVAEZ EXPEDITION

  • Shipwrecked along the Texas Coast

  • Suffered from hunger and American Indian attacks

  • Became stranded and ate horses to survive

  • Captured and enslaved by the Karankawa Indians or died


CABEZA DE VACA


What Happens

  • 400 men started out from Florida to Mexico

    • They thought this would be a short trip.

    • They had only enough food for everyone to have ½ handful of maize

  • There was a hurricane!

  • They never made it to Mexico, instead they (80) ended up in Texas (Galveston Bay).


  • They were cold, naked, starving, and had no food, shelter, or clothing.

  • They met up with the Karankawa Indians who gave them fish, roots, and walnuts.

    • When they received no more food from the Indians, they ate their shipmates that had died.

The Europeans gave

the Indians disease,

killing 1/2 of them!


THE LONE SURVIVORS

  • Only 4 survived (out of 400)!

    • Cabeza de Vaca and Estevanico

      • First Europeans to explore the interior of Texas


EXPERIENCES OF CABEZA DE VACA

  • Survivor of the failed Nararez expedition

  • Explored Tampa, Florida and Galveston, Texas

  • Taken in by the Kawakawas Indians

  • Escaped and traveled among Indian villages

  • Worked as a healer, trader, and servant

  • gained Indians’ respect

  • First European to Explore the Texas interior


Cabeza de Vaca

  • He also wrote about his life with the Native Americans in a work of literature called La relacion.

  • This was the first written work of Texas literature.


Cabeza de Vaca

  • The survivors from the 1528 hurricane beached at Galveston Bay and were helped by Karankawas.

  • Six years later only four men were alive, two of which were Cabeza de Vaca and Estevanico..

  • He and his men became the first Europeans to see the interior of Texas.


DE SOTO


EXPERIENCES OF Desoto

  • Set out in 1539 for Spain

  • Explored the Florida coast and South Eastern US until 1542

  • Died of Fever


Hernando de Soto

  • Coronado’s expedition did not find the Seven Cities of Cibola, so Spain sent another expedition in search of gold.

  • Hernando de Soto’s expedition also did not find any gold, but they explored east Texas. They were also the first exploration into the interior of North America.


Hernando de Soto

  • De Soto explored present-day Georgia, the Carolinas, Tennessee, Alabama, Mississippi, and Arkansas.

  • When he and his expedition reached the Mississippi River, they were discouraged and running out of supplies. They turned back home.

  • De Soto never made it back home. He died of an illness. His successor, Luis de Moscoso de Alvarado set out to find an overland route back to Mexico.


CORONADO


THE CORONADO EXPEDITION

  • Set out in 1540 for Spain

  • Crossed the Texas Panhandle and the Llano Estacado

  • Was looking for Cibola and Quivira – cities of gold

  • Learned there was no gold; only Pueblo villages

  • Saw American buffalo


RESULTS OF THE CORONADO AND DE SOTO EXPEDITIONS

  • Met the Texas Indians but did not find gold

  • Coronado – explored the American Southwest and encountered Indians

  • DeSoto – explored the American Southwest; encountered the Caddo Indians


Expedition

Goals

Results

Fray Marcos

& Estevanico

(1539)

Coronado

(1540)

De Soto–

Moscoso

(1539)

find seven lostcities of gold

Estevanico—reached a Zunivillage and was killed; FrayMarcos—saw village from afar and reported it was filled with gold and treasure

conquer Cibola;

gain its treasure

conquered Zuni village; crossed Texas Panhandle in search of Quivira; did not find any gold or treasure

conquer Cibola;

gain its treasure

explored what is now the south-eastern United States and East Texas; sailed to Mexico; did not find any gold or treasure


Francisco Vasquez de Coronado

  • Coronado was commissioned to find the legendary Seven Cities of Cibola. They were believed to haveGOLD.

Coronado and his men became the first Europeans to see West Texas


Matrix

Spanish Exploration and Colonization


SPANISH EXPLORATION IN TEXAS

Effects on Spain

Effects on American Indians

  • established a claim to Texas

  • gained knowledge about land and people of Texas

  • gained new plants and animals from the Americas

  • gained a buffer zone between Spanish settlement and American Indians/Europeans to the north

  • lost equine military advantage

  • conflict with Texas Indians

  • gained new plants and animals from Europe, such as horses

  • rise of a Plains Indian horse culture

  • Plains Indians’ fighting and hunting abilities increased by horses

  • many Texas Indian deaths from European diseases

  • conflict with the Spanish


SPANISH EXPLORERS: 1519–1598


EFFECTS OF SPANISH EXPLORATION

  • Established a claim to Texas

  • Gained knowledge about land and people of Texas

  • Gained new plants and animals from the Americas

  • Obtained a buffer zone between Spanish settlement and American Indians/Europeans to the north


SPAIN PROFITS FROM ITS TEXAS EXPLORATION

  • Established a claim to Texas

  • Gained knowledge about land and people of Texas

  • The Columbian Exchange

Columbian Exchange – term describing the transfer of plants, animals, and diseases between the Americas and other continents since the time of Columbus


SPAIN PROFITS FROM ITS TEXAS EXPLORATION

  • Obtained a buffer zone between Spanish settlements and American Indians

  • Learned about the Plains Indian horse culture


THE COLUMBIAN EXCHANGE AND ITS EFFECT ON INDIANS

  • Positive – led to a transfer of plants, animals between the Indians and Spanish

  • Negative – led to the spread of diseases from Europe to the Americas


La Salle


The La Salle Expedition

  • Set out in 1682 for France

  • Explored the Mississippi River and Gulf of Mexico

  • La Salle get lost and ended up in Texas

  • Set up a settlement in Texas

  • Name the area around the Mississippi River… Louisiana


The French Explore Texas

  • The international competition for land in the New World was intense.

  • In 1682 La Salle claimed the Mississippi River and the surrounding land (dependent on the river) for France.

  • He called it La Louisiane (Louisiana).

  • They wanted to compete with Spain’s quest for riches and control trade.


Fort St. Louis

  • La Salle established the first French colony in Texas on the Lavaca River.

  • The colony had trouble from the beginning because they lost valuable supplies at sea.

  • They were helped for a while by the Indians, but fighting soon broke out.


Why did the Natives turn against LaSalle and his men?

  • The Native Americans found the supplies that washed up on shore after La Belle sank.

  • The French took the supplies back without asking for them or explaining what happened.


Fort St. Louis

  • La Salle tried to find a way back to the Mississippi River, but was unsuccessful.

  • Many of his men died.

  • In 1687 La Salle tried to go home. He took 17 of the 20 survivors with him.

  • On the way, the men plotted against him and he was killed.

  • Spanish explorers found the bodies of the remaining French colonists who had been killed by the Indians.


FRENCH AND SPANISH CLAIMS ON NORTH AMERICA, 1682–1688


Europe Eyes the Americas

Columbus came to the New World looking for gold and a new trade route to Asia. Although he found neither, his four voyages inspired others to seek their fortunes in the Americas.

The French Explore Texas

Spain’s claims on Texas lands prompted France to establish a colony of its own. Although La Salle’s Texas colony did not survive, France’spresence renewedSpain’s interest insettling Texas.

Spanish Explorers Come to Texas

Following Columbus’s lead, Spain established colonies in the Caribbean and Mexico. Reports of riches drew the explorers north to Texas where they established a successful mission.


Consequences for the Native Americans

www.rangerdj.com/ clipart/indian/indian.jpg

  • Native Americans lived in Texas long before the Europeans explored there.

  • The arrival of the Spanish and French explorers to Texas brought Native Americans severe consequences.

  • Diseases such as smallpox killed thousands of Native Americans.


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