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Influenza Surveillance in Nicaragua Through Use of Diagnostic Techniques. BY: Jessica Hernandez 24/April/2014 MHIRT 2014. Overview. Background on Influenza Transmission Seasonality Nicaraguan Influenza Cohort Study (NICS) Diagnostic techniques

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Influenza Surveillance in Nicaragua Through Use of Diagnostic Techniques

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Influenza surveillance in nicaragua through use of diagnostic techniques

Influenza Surveillance in Nicaragua Through Use of Diagnostic Techniques

BY: Jessica Hernandez

24/April/2014

MHIRT 2014


Overview

Overview

  • Background on Influenza

  • Transmission

  • Seasonality

  • Nicaraguan Influenza Cohort Study (NICS)

  • Diagnostic techniques

    • Quantitative reverse transcription - Polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR)

    • Hemagglutination assays


Background

Background

  • Three types influenza virus

    • A– seasonal epidemics

      • A subtyped based on surface proteins and then broken down into strains

      • 18 H and 11 N

      • H1, H2, H3, N1 and N2 commonly infect humans

    • B – seasonal epidemics

      • divided into strains

    • C – mild respiratory illnesses

http://users.rcn.com/jkimball.ma.ultranet/BiologyPages/I/Influenza.html


Influenza surveillance in nicaragua through use of diagnostic techniques

http://thehealthybear.com/influenza-virus-australia/


Viral infection

Viral infection


Transmission

Transmission

Nature Medicine Journal


Seasonality

Seasonality

  • Higher infection rates during specific time periods

    • Tropical regions: Nicaragua

      • Rainy seasons

  • Higher risk of infection

    • Children

    • Individuals in crowded households

Gordon et. al., 09’


Nicaraguan influenza cohort study nics june 07

Nicaraguan Influenza Cohort Study (NICS) – June 07’

  • Severity and Seasonality of A (H1N1)

  • Managua, Nicaragua

  • Coincided with Dengue Pediatric Cohort Study (04’)

  • ~3800 children, 2-14 years of age

    • Lack immune-comprising conditions

    • Health Center Socrates Flores Vivas

  • Nasal and throat swab specimen

    • National Virology Laboratory

      • RT-PCR using CDC protocol

      • Hemagglutination assay

    • Transmission rates

    • Viral shedding

    • Seasonality


Reverse transcription rt

Reverse Transcription (RT)

Developmental Biology 9th ed. by Gilbert


Polymerase chain reaction pcr

Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR)

  • https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=HMC7c2T8fVk


Hemagglutination assay

Hemagglutination Assay

  • Determine hemagglutination titer

Motifolio

Virology Blog


Acknowledgements

Acknowledgements

  • Berkeley’s MHIRT Program

    • Professors

    • Speakers

    • Fellow Classmates

  • National Institute of Health

  • Aubree Gordon and Eva Harris

  • Staff in NICS

  • National Virology Laboratory


References

References

  • http://users.rcn.com/jkimball.ma.ultranet/BiologyPages/I/Influenza.html

  • http://www.nature.com/nm/journal/v18/n10/fig_tab/nm.2953_F1.html

  • http://www.virology.ws/2009/05/27/influenza-hemagglutination-inhibition-assay/

  • http://www.motifolio.com/1021217.html

  • CDC – National Center for Immunization and Respiratory Diseases. 2014. Types of Influenza Viruses and Clinical Signs and Symptoms of Influenza. Center for Diseases and Control Prevention.

  • WHO. 2014. Influenza (Seasonal) Fact Sheet. World Health Organization.

  • Gordon A, Ortega O, Kuan G, Reingold A, Saborio S, Balmaseda A, and Harris E. 2009. Prevalence and Seasonality of Influenza-like Illness in Children, Nicaragua, 2005-2007. Emerg. Infect. Dis. 15:408-414.

  • Gordon A, Saborío S, Videa E, López R, Kuan G, Balmaseda A, and Harris E. 2010. Clinical Attack Rate and Presentation of Pandemic H1N1 Influenza versus Seasonal Influenza A and B in a Pediatric Cohort in Nicaragua. Clin. Infect. Dis. 50:1462-1467.

  • Gordon A, Kuan G, Mercado JC, Gresh L, Avilés W, Balmaseda A, and Harris E. 2013. The Nicaraguan Pediatric Dengue Cohort Study: Incidence of Inapparent and Symptomatic Dengue Virus Infections, 2004–2010. PLoSNegl. Trop. Dis. 7:1-10.

  • CDC. 2009. CDC protocol of real-time RTPCR for swine influenza A(H1N1). World Health Organization.


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