Heterotroph nutrition
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Slide #1. Heterotroph Nutrition. All the activities by which an organism obtains and uses food from the environment for growth and repair of cells Ingestion -take in Digestion -breakdown Egestion -removal of waste. Amoeba. Slide #2. Phagocytosis (solid) / Pinocytosis (liquid). Ingestion:.

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Heterotroph Nutrition

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Slide #1

Heterotroph Nutrition

  • All the activities by which an organism obtains and uses food from the environment for growth and repair of cells

  • Ingestion-take in

  • Digestion-breakdown

  • Egestion-removal of waste


Amoeba

Slide #2

Phagocytosis (solid) / Pinocytosis (liquid)

Ingestion:

Lysosome enzymes in food vacuole

Digestion:

Exocytosis

Egestion:


Types of Ingestion or Endocytosis:

Pinocytosis (cell drinking)

Process where cell membrane “pinches in” drawing molecules into the cell forming a pinocytic vesicle

Phagocytosis (cell eating)

Process where pseudopods of a cell flow around matter and engulf it forming a food vacuole.

Pseudo= false and Pod = foot

Pseudopod = false foot


Amoeba

Slide #3

Phagocytosis


Phagocytosis

Requires Energy

ATP


Paramecium

Slide #4

Cilia beat food into oral groove

and gullet forms food vacuole

Ingestion:

Digestion:

Lysosome enzymes in food vacuole

Egestion:

Waste out anal pore


Slide #5

Nutrients

  • The substances in food that an organism needs and uses for its life functions


Slide #6

Function of Nutrients

  • They act as a fuel to provide energy for the life activities of cells

  • They supply chemicals needed for growth and repair of cells

  • They regulate proper functioning of the cell

How do we get the nutrients we need to maintain life activities?????


Slide #7

Human Digestive System

(Extra-cellular Digestion)

Alimentary Canal:

Tube within a tube body construction

Mouth

Accessory Organs

Pharynx

Salivary Glands

Esophagus

Pancreas

Stomach

Liver

Small Intestine

Large Intestine

Rectum

Anus


Human Digestive system

Slide #8

Pharynx

Salivary Glands

Mouth

Esophagus

Teeth/Tongue

Liver

Stomach

Gall Bladder

Pancreas

Colon

Large Intestine

Small Intestine

Appendix

Rectum

Anus


Slide #9

Mouth & Pharynx:

Click to enlarge

Mechanical Digestion:

  • breaks foods into smaller

  • pieces

- increases surface area

- chewing, grinding, crushing (tongue)

Chemical Digestion:

- salivary glands release amylase

(starch  maltose)

(works best at pH 8)

Note: Epiglottis covers opening of trachea


Slide #10

Which type of digestion is the following?

Mechanical

  • Chewing a saltine? -

    2. Saliva breaking the saltine down into molecules of glucose? -

    3. Your tongue breaking pieces of a hamburger apart?

    4. Pepsin (an enzyme) in your stomach breaking the hamburger into amino acids?

Chemical

Mechanical

Chemical


Slide #11

Esophagus:

- connects pharynx to stomach

- peristalsis

(wave of muscular contractions of

alimentary canal)


Slide #12

Stomach:

(holds 2 liters of food)

Mechanical Digestion – churning of stomach

Chemical Digestion – glands

  • Gastric Gland

  • secretes acidic gastric

    juices (pH 2)

  • contains HCl

  • contains enzyme pepsin

(proteins  smaller polypeptides)


Slide #13

What stimulates gastric juice flow?

1) thought,

smell,

sight,

and taste

2) food entering the stomach

3) food touching stomach lining

Stomach Factoids

  • liquids pass through stomach in 20 minutes

  • solids pass through in 2-6 hours

  • Hunger pains are churning of empty stomach

  • Ulcer caused by excess gastric juice digesting

    part of stomach wall


Slide #14

Gastric Bypass Surgery

Small Intestine


Slide #15

Small Intestine:

- Length = 6.5 meters

- Diameter = 2.5 cm

- pH 8

Functions:

  • Chemical Digestion (most)

  • Absorption of Nutrients

Peristalsis:

  • moves food through intestine

  • mixes food with enzymes

  • mechanical digestion

  • speeds up absorption


Slide #16

Small Intestine


Slide #17

Liver

Gallbladder

Food mixes with:

  • Bile from liver

  • Pancreatic juices from pancreas (*enzymes*)

  • Intestinal juices from intestinal glands (*enzymes*)

Bile:

- produced by liver

- stored in gallbadder

- released into upper small intestine

Function:

  • Emulsification of fats

(break into droplets)

  • Neutralizes acidic contents from stomach


Small Intestine


Absorption:

Slide #18

Circulatory System uses (CAPILLARIES) to absorb::

  • simple sugars (glucose)

  • amino acids

  • vitamins

  • minerals


Slide #19

Adaptations that increase surface area of intestine:

(6.5 meters or 21 feet)

  • Length

  • Lining has folds

  • Villi (finger-like projections on folded lining)

Absorption involves diffusion and active transport


Slide #20

Regent’s Practice

  • The pancreas is an organ connected to the digestive tract of humans by a duct through which digestive enzymes flow. These enzymes are important to the digestive system because they:

  • Form proteins needed in the stomach

  • Form the acids that break down food

  • Change food substances into molecules that can pass into the bloodstream and cells

  • Change food materials into wastes that can be passed out of the body.


Large Intestine:

Colon

Slide #21

Length = 1.5 meters

Diameter = 6 cm

No digestion occurs here

Function:

  • Absorption of water

- Diarrhea (too little absorption)

- Constipation (too much absorption)

  • Bacteria produce vitamin K and various vitamin B

Note: Appendix is attached between small and large

intestine (vestigial organ)


Slide #22

the quest for Polyps

  • Colonoscopy:


Slide #23

Large Intestine ( Colon Polyps_)

  • Polyps are small growths on the inner colon lining that look like warts.


Slide #24

Removal Colon Polyps_)

  • You may be more likely to get colon polyps if you:

  • eat a lot of fatty foods

  • smoke

  • drink alcohol

  • don’t exercise

  • weigh too much


Rectum:

Slide #25

  • temporary storage of feces (stool)

  • feces is primarily undigested material

Anus:

(anal sphincter)

  • releases waste into environment (egestion/defecate)


Slide #26

End Products of Digestion(Hydrolysis)

Proteins 

Carbohydrates 

Lipids 

amino acids

glucose

fatty acids + glycerol


Slide #27

Regent’s Practice

  • Organic compounds, such as proteins and starches, are too A to diffuse into cells. Proteins are digested to B and starches are digested to C.

    A. A- large, B-simple sugars, C- amino acids

    B. A- small, B-simple sugars, C-amino acids

    C. A-large, B-amino acids, C-simple sugars

    D. A-small, B-amino acids, C-simple sugars


Slide #28

Disorders of the Digestive Tract

Body Atlas: Digestive Problems


Slide #29

Heartburn

  • ACID from the stomach backs up into the esophagus.


Slide #30

Constipation

To much water is absorbed by the large intestine.

Also can exist due to lack of roughage.

Results in solid/hardened stool


Slide #31

Diarrhea

Decreased water absorption and increased peristaltic activity of large intestine.

Results in an increased watery feces.


Slide #32

Gallstones

An accumulation of hardened cholesterol deposits in the

gall bladder.

Can either be “passed” (OUCH!!) or surgically removed


Slide #33

Nutritional Requirements

  • RDA- recommended daily allowance

    • intake level of a nutrient considered sufficient


Nutritional requirements vary with individuals:agesexheightweightactivities

Slide #34


Recommended Daily Calories For MenMiddle Age Group With Moderate Activity :

6'0

5'4

151-193

119-155

2,932

2,548

5'5

6'1

155-198

133-160

2,980

2,596

5'6

6'2

159-203

127-164

3,028

2,644

6'3

5'7

163-208

131-169

3,076

2,692

6'4

5'8

167-212

135-174

3,124

2,740

6'5

5'9

171-217

139-179

3,172

2,788

6'6

5'10

175-222

143-184

3,220

2,836

5'11

147-188

2,884

Slide #35


Recommended Daily Calories For WomenMiddle Age Group With Moderate Activity :

4'11

5'10

90-120

128-166

2,100

2,518

5'11

5'0

132-170

93-124

2,133

2,562

5'1

6'0

97-128

135-174

2,595

2,177

6'1

5'2

100-132

139-178

2,210

2,639

5'3

6'2

104-137

142-182

2,672

2,254

5'4

107-140

2,287

5'5

111-145

2,331

5'6

114-149

2,364

5'7

118-154

2,408

5'8

121-157

2,441

5'9

125-162

2,485

5'10

128-166

2,518

Slide #36


Fast Food Nutritional Info

Slide #37

Whopper w.Cheese 760 CAL. Vanilla Shake – small 360 CAL

Super Size Fries 540 CAL

Diet Coke 0 CAL

Supposed to be: 1660 CAL


Fast Food Nutritional Info

Slide #38

Regular Slice Cheese Pizza 380 Cal

Regular Slice Sausage Pizza 495 Cal

Regular Slice Pepperoni Pizza 427 CAL

Supposed to be: 1302 CAL


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