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Chapter 18. Cold War. Click here for vocabulary test practice. Vocabulary practice. 1. History of conflict: 1957- space race 1960- Russians shot down an American spy plane 1970- Détente- Strategic Arms Limitation talks. 1975- space cooperation 1980- Olympic boycott (Miracle on Ice).

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chapter 18

Chapter 18

Cold War

usa vs ussr

1. History of conflict:

  • 1957- space race
  • 1960- Russians shot down an American spy plane
  • 1970- Détente- Strategic Arms Limitation talks.
  • 1975- space cooperation
  • 1980- Olympic boycott (Miracle on Ice)
USA vs. USSR
usa vs ussr1

Red Scare: Fear of communism

  • Bomb shelters: Americans
  • Joseph McCarthy- US senator: McCarthism (everyone is a communist) He wanted to rid the US of anyone who is a communist.
USA vs. USSR
goal structure of un

Prevent war/ keep peace/ help (success or failure?)

  • General Assembly: every country has an ambassador that represents the country’s interests. Each country gets 1 vote. Make suggestions (193 members currently)
  • Security Council: 15 members (5 permanent (nuclear weapons) US, Russia (USSR), Great Britain, France, and China.) They have the power to veto. Other countries are on rotation every 2 years. Each has a vote.
    • Economic sanctions: stop trade with that country.
    • UN military-soldiers from any of the countries.
Goal/ Structure of UN
marshall plan

A. rebuild Europe- George Marshall (US secretary of state)

  • B. Goal: stop communism 1945-1990
  • C. USA- buy Allies (Western Europe, Japan, Iraq)
  • D. How much? (12.5 billion after WWII) Did not give anything to communist countries. Portugal: 51 mil.; Greece: 707 mil.; Austria: 678 mil.; Turkey: 225 mil.; Italy: 1.509 bil.; France 2.714 bil.; Belgium/ Luxenbourg: 546 mil.; Netherland: 1.084 bil.; West Germany: 1.391 bil; Denmark: 273 mil.; Sweden: 107 mil.; Norway 236 mil.; Ireland and UK: 3.19 bil.
  • Big differnce: US spends 711billion on military. China spends 143 billon. (2012)
  • US is the policeman of the world. (that takes money) It starts with the Marshall Plan.
Marshall Plan
containment

A. definition: policy created by the US to stop the spread of communism. (George Kennan)

  • Communist: North Korea, China, Southeast Asia, Vietnam, Cuba (today)
  • B. examples: Korean War (1950-1953) North invades the South. Vietnam War.
Containment
truman doctrine

A. Harry Truman: President

  • B. definition: US has the right to help anyone we want. (free people) resisting armed aggression. (USA gives the USA the right.) Examples: Korean War, Vietnam War, Operation Desert Storm, War on Terrorism.
Truman Doctrine
berlin airlift

Soviets Blockade West Berlin

  • Goal WW3 with West Berlin
  • US response: fly everything to West Berlin
  • Soviet response: Berlin wall- wall separating East/West Berlin
  • Soviet goal: stop people from leaving
  • Symbol of Cold War
  • Wall falls: end of Cold War
  • Bay of Pigs Invasion: (Cuba 1961) Fidel Castro- Cuba/Communist
  • Nikita Khruschev- USSR
  • JFK- USA
Berlin Airlift
kennedy presidency

Plan: Arm Cuban revolutionaries (CIA training, invade Bay of Pigs, Start Cuban revolution.

  • Results: Failure
    • JFK look weak. Too young to be president, too inexperienced, relationship with military. (not good)
Kennedy Presidency
cuban missile crisis

USA, USSR, Cuba

  • Kennedy, Khruschev, Castro
  • Balance of Power- USA, USSR
  • MAD: Mutual Assured Destruction
  • USSR: put missiles in Cuba (90 miles from USA) in response to Bay of Pigs.
  • U-2 spy plane (USA)
  • Kennedy’s options: nuclear attack, limited attack, international politics, blockade (Cuba).
  • Threats (ultimatum) or ignore it, or invade Cuba.
  • JFK’s decision: blockade, ultimatum. It worked Khruschev blinked.
Cuban Missile Crisis
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