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How to use this presentation

How to Use This Presentation

  • To View the presentation as a slideshow with effects

    select “View” on the menu bar and click on “Slide Show.”

  • To advance through the presentation, click the right-arrow key or the space bar.

  • From the resources slide, click on any resource to see a presentation for that resource.

  • From the Chapter menu screen click on any lesson to go directly to that lesson’s presentation.

  • You may exit the slide show at any time by pressing the Esc key.


How to use this presentation

Resources

Chapter Presentation

Visual Concepts

Transparencies

Standardized Test Prep


Table of contents

Reproduction and Development

Chapter 43

Table of Contents

Section 1 Male Reproduction System

Section 2 Female Reproduction System

Section 3 Development

Section 4 Sexually Transmitted Diseases


Objectives

Section 1 Male Reproductive System

Chapter 43

Objectives

  • Describehow sperm are produced.

  • Identifythe major structures of the male reproductive system.

  • Relatethe structure of a sperm cell to its functions.

  • Sequencethe path taken by sperm as they leave the body.


The testes

Section 1 Male Reproductive System

Chapter 43

The Testes

  • The roles of a male in sexual reproduction are to produce sperm cells—the male gametes—and to deliver the sperm cells to the female reproductive system to fertilize an egg cell—the female gamete.

  • Two egg-shaped testes or testicles, are the gamete-producing organs of the male reproductive system.

  • The testes are located in the scrotum, an external skin sac.


Structure of the testes

Section 1 Male Reproductive System

Chapter 43

Structure of the Testes


The testes continued

Section 1 Male Reproductive System

Chapter 43

The Testes, continued

Production of Sperm

  • Each testis contains hundreds of compartments packed with many tightly coiled tubules, called seminiferous tubules.

  • Sperm cells are produced through meiosis in the lining of the seminiferous tubules.

  • Two hormones released by the anterior pituitary regulate the functioning of the testes: luteinizing hormone (LH) and follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH). LH stimulates production of testosterone.


Male hormones and reproduction

Section 1 Male Reproductive System

Chapter 43

Male Hormones and Reproduction


Formation of a sperm

Section 1 Male Reproductive System

Chapter 43

Formation of a Sperm


The testes continued1

Section 1 Male Reproductive System

Chapter 43

The Testes, continued

Maturation and Storage of Sperm

  • After being produced in the seminiferous tubules, the sperm travel through a series of long tubes though they are not yet capable of swimming.

  • Sperm then enter a long coiled tube called the epididymis. Within each epididymis, the sperm mature and become capable of moving.

  • From the epididymis, some sperm move to another long tube, the vas deferens.


Male reproductive system

Section 1 Male Reproductive System

Chapter 43

Male Reproductive System


Human male reproductive system

Section 1 Male Reproductive System

Chapter 43

Human Male Reproductive System


Path of sperm through the male body

Section 1 Male Reproductive System

Chapter 43

Path of Sperm Through the Male Body


The testes continued2

Section 1 Male Reproductive System

Chapter 43

The Testes, continued

Structure of Mature Sperm

  • A mature sperm cell consists of a head with very little cytoplasm, a midpiece, and a long tail.

  • Enzymes at the tip of the head help the sperm cell penetrate an egg cell during fertilization.

  • The midpiece contains many mitochondria that supply sperm with the energy needed to propel themselves through the female reproductive system.


Sperm cell

Section 1 Male Reproductive System

Chapter 43

Sperm Cell


Parts of a human sperm

Section 1 Male Reproductive System

Chapter 43

Parts of a Human Sperm


The testes continued3

Section 1 Male Reproductive System

Chapter 43

The Testes, continued

Semen

  • As sperm cells move into the urethra, they mix with fluids secreted by three exocrine glands: the seminal vesicles, the prostate gland, and the bulbourethral glands.

  • These fluids nourish the sperm and aid their passage through the female reproductive system.

  • The seminal vesicles, which lie between the bladder and the rectum, produce a fluid rich in sugars that sperm use for energy.


The testes continued4

Section 1 Male Reproductive System

Chapter 43

The Testes, continued

Semen

  • The prostate gland, which is located just below the bladder, secretes an alkaline fluid that neutralizes the acids in the female reproductive system.

  • Before semen leaves the body, the bulbourethral glands also secrete an alkaline fluid that neutralizes traces of acidic urine in the urethra.

  • The mixture of these secretions with sperm is called semen.


The testes continued5

Section 1 Male Reproductive System

Chapter 43

The Testes, continued

Delivery of Sperm

  • The urethra passes through the penis, the male organ that deposits sperm in the female reproductive system during sexual intercourse.

  • Sperm exit the penis through ejaculation, the forceful expulsion of semen.

  • After the semen is deposited in the female reproductive system, sperm swim until they encounter an egg cell or until they die.


The testes continued6

Section 1 Male Reproductive System

Chapter 43

The Testes, continued

Delivery of Sperm

  • The penis contains three cylinders of spongy tissue. When the spaces in these cylinders fill with blood, the penis becomes erect.


Objectives1

Section 2 Female Reproductive System

Chapter 43

Objectives

  • Describe how eggs are produced.

  • Identifythe major structures of the female reproductive system.

  • Analyzethe events of the ovarian and menstrual cycles.


The ovaries

Section 2 Female Reproductive System

Chapter 43

The Ovaries

Production of Eggs

  • The ovaries are the gamete-producing organs of the female reproductive system.

  • At birth, the ovaries contain about 2 million immature egg cells that already have begun the first division of meiosis.

  • When an egg cell matures, it is called an ovum.


Ovaries and uterus

Section 2 Female Reproductive System

Chapter 43

Ovaries and Uterus


Formation of an ovum

Section 2 Female Reproductive System

Chapter 43

Formation of an Ovum


The ovaries continued

Section 2 Female Reproductive System

Chapter 43

The Ovaries, continued

Structures of the Female Reproductive System

  • When an ovum is released from an ovary, cilia sweep the ovum into a fallopian tube. Each fallopian tube is a passageway through which an ovum moves from an ovary toward the uterus.

  • The uterus is a hollow, muscular organ.

  • During sexual intercourse, sperm are deposited inside the vagina, a muscular tube that leads from the outside of the female’s body to the entrance to the uterus.


Female reproductive system

Section 2 Female Reproductive System

Chapter 43

Female Reproductive System


Human female reproductive system

Section 2 Female Reproductive System

Chapter 43

Human Female Reproductive System


Path of an egg through the female body

Section 2 Female Reproductive System

Chapter 43

Path of an Egg Through the Female Body


The ovum

Section 2 Female Reproductive System

Chapter 43

The Ovum

  • The ovaries prepare and release an ovum in a series of events collectively called the ovarian cycle.

  • The release of an ovum from an ovary is called ovulation.

  • The ovum is then swept into the fallopian tube and begins to move toward the uterus, awaiting fertilization.

  • Although the duration of the ovarian cycle varies, the cycle generally spans about 28 days.


The ovum continued

Section 2 Female Reproductive System

Chapter 43

The Ovum, continued

Phases of the Ovarian Cycle

During the ovarian cycle, ovulation occurs about every 28 days.


The ovum continued1

Section 2 Female Reproductive System

Chapter 43

The Ovum, continued

Phases of the Ovarian Cycle: Follicular Phase

  • A follicle is a cluster of cells that surrounds an immature egg cell and provides the egg with nutrients.

  • During the follicular phase of the ovarian cycle, hormones regulate the completion of an egg cell’s maturation.

  • The follicular phase begins when the anterior pituitary releases follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH) and luteinizing hormone (LH).


The ovum continued2

Section 2 Female Reproductive System

Chapter 43

The Ovum, continued

Phases of the Ovarian Cycle: Ovulation

  • As the follicle approaches maturity, it begins to secrete large amounts of estrogen.

  • The anterior pituitary responds to this high level of estrogen by greatly increasing secretion of LH.

  • This surge of LH causes the egg cell to complete the first meiotic division, and it causes the follicle and the ovary to rupture. When the follicle bursts, ovulation occurs.


The ovum continued3

Section 2 Female Reproductive System

Chapter 43

The Ovum, continued

Phases of the Ovarian Cycle: Luteal Phase

  • After ovulation occurs, LH causes the cells of the ruptured follicle to grow, forming a corpus luteum.

  • A corpus luteum is a yellowish mass of follicular cells that functions like an endocrine gland.

  • LH causes the corpus luteum to secrete estrogen and progesterone, another sex hormone. This prevents the development of new follicles during the luteal phase.


Ovarian and menstrual cycles

Section 2 Female Reproductive System

Chapter 43

Ovarian and Menstrual Cycles


The ovum continued4

Section 2 Female Reproductive System

Chapter 43

The Ovum, continued

Preparation for Pregnancy

  • Progesterone signals the body to prepare for fertilization.

  • If fertilization occurs, the corpus luteum continues to produce progesterone for several weeks.

  • If fertilization does not occur, production of progesterone slows and eventually stops, marking the end of the ovarian cycle.


The ovum continued5

Section 2 Female Reproductive System

Chapter 43

The Ovum, continued

Preparation for Pregnancy: Menstrual Cycle

  • The series of changes that prepare the uterus for a possible pregnancy each month is called the menstrual cycle.

  • The events of the menstrual cycle are influenced by the changing levels of estrogen and progesterone during the ovarian cycle.

  • The end of the menstrual cycle coincides with the end of the luteal phase of the ovarian cycle.


Menstrual cycle and hormones

Section 2 Female Reproductive System

Chapter 43

Menstrual Cycle and Hormones


Menstrual cycle and uterine lining

Section 2 Female Reproductive System

Chapter 43

Menstrual Cycle and Uterine Lining


The ovum continued6

Section 2 Female Reproductive System

Chapter 43

The Ovum, continued

Menstruation

  • When the lining of the uterus is shed, blood vessels break and bleeding results.

  • A mixture of blood and discarded tissue then leaves the body through the vagina.

  • This process, called menstruation, usually occurs about 14 days after ovulation.

  • Women eventually stop menstruation. After this event, called menopause, a woman no longer ovulates.


Objectives2

Chapter 43

Section 3 Development

Objectives

  • Sequencethe events of fertilization, cleavage, and implantation.

  • Summarizethe three trimesters of pregnancy.

  • Describethe effects of drug use on development.


Fertilization

Chapter 43

Section 3 Development

Fertilization

  • If sperm are present in the female reproductive system within a few days after ovulation, fertilization may occur.

  • To fertilize an ovum, a sperm cell must swim to a fallopian tube, where fertilization usually occurs.

  • During fertilization, the head of the sperm enters the ovum, and the nuclei of the ovum and sperm fuse together. This produces a diploid cell called a zygote.


Fertilization1

Chapter 43

Section 3 Development

Fertilization


Fertilization continued

Chapter 43

Section 3 Development

Fertilization, continued

Cleavage and Implantation

  • In the first week after fertilization, the zygote undergoes a series of internal divisions known as cleavage.

  • Cleavage continues as the zygote moves toward the uterus. By the time it reaches the uterus, the zygote is a hollow ball of cells called a blastocyst.

  • About six days after fertilization, the blastocyst burrows into the lining of the uterus in an event calledimplantation.


Early zygote development

Chapter 43

Section 3 Development

Early Zygote Development


Cleavage and implantation

Chapter 43

Section 3 Development

Cleavage and Implantation


Pregnancy

Chapter 43

Section 3 Development

Pregnancy

  • Human development takes about 9 months—a period known as gestation, or pregnancy.

  • The 9 months of pregnancy are often divided into three trimesters, or 3-month periods.

  • For the first 8 weeks of pregnancy, the developing human is called an embryo.


Pregnancy overview

Chapter 43

Section 3 Development

Pregnancy Overview


Pregnancy continued

Chapter 43

Section 3 Development

Pregnancy, continued

First Trimester: Supportive Membranes

  • In the second week after fertilization—shortly after implantation—the embryo grows rapidly. Membranes that will protect and nourish it also develop. One of these membranes, the amnion, encloses and protects the embryo.

  • Another membrane, the chorion, interacts with the uterus to form the placenta.

  • The placenta is the structure through which the mother nourishes the embryo.


Structure of the placenta

Chapter 43

Section 3 Development

Structure of the Placenta


Parts of a placenta

Chapter 43

Section 3 Development

Parts of a Placenta


Function of a placenta

Chapter 43

Section 3 Development

Function of a Placenta


Pregnancy continued1

Chapter 43

Section 3 Development

Pregnancy, continued

First Trimester: Development of Embryo

  • As the placenta forms, the inner cells of the blastocyst form the three primary tissue layers—endoderm, mesoderm, and ectoderm.

  • By the end of the fourth week, all of the major organs begin to form, and the heart begins to beat.

  • During the second month, the final stage in embryonic development takes place. The arms and legs take shape. Within the body cavity, the major internal organs, including the liver, are evident.


Embryo development

Chapter 43

Section 3 Development

Embryo Development


Pregnancy continued2

Chapter 43

Section 3 Development

Pregnancy, continued

First Trimester: Development of Fetus

  • From the eighth week of pregnancy until childbirth, the developing human is called a fetus.

  • By the end of the first trimester, the sex of the fetus can be distinguished.

  • A fetus has recognizable body features, and its organ systems have begun to form.


First trimester

Chapter 43

Section 3 Development

First Trimester


Pregnancy continued3

Chapter 43

Section 3 Development

Pregnancy, continued

Second and Third Trimesters

  • During the second and third trimesters, the fetus grows rapidly as its organs become functional.

  • By the end of the third trimester, the fetus is able to exist outside the mother’s body.

  • After about 9 months of development, the fetus leaves the mother’s body in a process called labor, which usually lasts several hours.


Second trimester

Chapter 43

Section 3 Development

Second Trimester


Third trimester

Chapter 43

Section 3 Development

Third Trimester


Events of human fetal development

Chapter 43

Section 3 Development

Events of Human Fetal Development


Pregnancy continued4

Chapter 43

Section 3 Development

Pregnancy, continued

Second and Third Trimesters

  • During childbirth, the fetus exits the mother’s body through the vagina.


Afterbirth

Chapter 43

Section 3 Development

Afterbirth


Objectives3

Section 4 Sexually Transmitted Diseases

Chapter 43

Objectives

  • Identifythe causes and symptoms of several bacterial STDs.

  • Identifythe causes and symptoms of some viral STDs.

  • Comparethe treatment and cure rates of viral STDs with those of bacterial STDs.


How to use this presentation

Section 4 Sexually Transmitted Diseases

Chapter 43

STDs

  • Pathogens present in body fluids, such as semen, can be passed from one person to another through sexual contact.

  • Diseases spread by sexual contact are called sexually transmitted diseases, or STDs.

  • Abstinence and the use of condoms can help prevent the spread of STDs.


Sexually transmitted diseases

Section 4 Sexually Transmitted Diseases

Chapter 43

Sexually Transmitted Diseases


Stds continued

Section 4 Sexually Transmitted Diseases

Chapter 43

STDs, continued

Bacterial STDs

  • Gonorrhea is a bacterial STD that causes painful urination and a discharge of pus from the penis. In females, gonorrhea can causes a vaginal discharge but often has no symptoms.

  • Syphilis is a serious bacterial STD that often begins with the appearance of an ulcer called a chancre.

  • Chlamydia, which has symptoms similar to those of gonorrhea, is the most common bacterial STD.


Gonorrhea

Section 4 Sexually Transmitted Diseases

Chapter 43

Gonorrhea


Syphilis

Section 4 Sexually Transmitted Diseases

Chapter 43

Syphilis


Chlamydia

Section 4 Sexually Transmitted Diseases

Chapter 43

Chlamydia


Stds continued1

Section 4 Sexually Transmitted Diseases

Chapter 43

STDs, continued

Bacterial STDs: Pelvic Inflammatory Disease

  • One of the most common causes of infertility in women is pelvic inflammatory disease, or PID.

  • PID is a severe inflammation of the uterus, ovaries, fallopian tubes, or abdominal cavity that results from a bacterial STD that has gone untreated.

  • Most cases of PID are the result of gonorrhea or chlamydia infections.


Pelvic inflammatory disease

Section 4 Sexually Transmitted Diseases

Chapter 43

Pelvic Inflammatory Disease


Stds continued2

Section 4 Sexually Transmitted Diseases

Chapter 43

STDs, continued

Viral STDs

  • AIDS is a fatal disease caused by the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). Transmission through sexual contact is the most common way that people become exposed to HIV.

  • Genital herpes is caused by herpes simplex virus.

  • Symptoms of genital herpes include periodic outbreaks of painful blisters in the genital region and flulike aches and fever.


Known routes of hiv transmission

Section 4 Sexually Transmitted Diseases

Chapter 43

Known Routes of HIV Transmission


Aids acquired immune deficiency syndrome

Section 4 Sexually Transmitted Diseases

Chapter 43

AIDS (Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome)


Multiple choice

Standardized Test Prep

Chapter 43

Multiple Choice

Use the chart below to answer questions 1–3.


Multiple choice continued

Standardized Test Prep

Chapter 43

Multiple Choice, continued

1.Approximately when during the ovarian cycle does ovulation usually occur?

A.day 7

B.day 14

C.day 21

D.day 28


Multiple choice continued1

Standardized Test Prep

Chapter 43

Multiple Choice, continued

1.Approximately when during the ovarian cycle does ovulation usually occur?

A.day 7

B.day 14

C.day 21

D.day 28


Multiple choice continued2

Standardized Test Prep

Chapter 43

Multiple Choice, continued

2.What happens during the second half of the follicular phase?

F.The concentration of LH suddenly increases and then decreases.

G.The concentration of progesterone suddenly decreases and then increases.

H.The concentration of FSH steadily decreases.

J.The concentration of estrogen remains fairly constant.


Multiple choice continued3

Standardized Test Prep

Chapter 43

Multiple Choice, continued

2.What happens during the second half of the follicular phase?

F.The concentration of LH suddenly increases and then decreases.

G.The concentration of progesterone suddenly decreases and then increases.

H.The concentration of FSH steadily decreases.

J.The concentration of estrogen remains fairly constant.


Multiple choice continued4

Standardized Test Prep

Chapter 43

Multiple Choice, continued

3.About when during the ovarian cycle is the concentration of progesterone highest?

A.day 7

B.day 13

C.day 23

D.day 28


Multiple choice continued5

Standardized Test Prep

Chapter 43

Multiple Choice, continued

3.About when during the ovarian cycle is the concentration of progesterone highest?

A.day 7

B.day 13

C.day 23

D.day 28


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