Ethics in engineering l.jpg
This presentation is the property of its rightful owner.
Sponsored Links
1 / 42

Ethics in Engineering PowerPoint PPT Presentation


  • 142 Views
  • Uploaded on
  • Presentation posted in: General

Ethics in Engineering. Jerry C. Collins Department of Biomedical Engineering Vanderbilt University. Overview of Presentation. Fundamentals of Ethics Ethics Education in Engineering Codes of Ethics Accreditation Board for Engineering and Technology

Download Presentation

Ethics in Engineering

An Image/Link below is provided (as is) to download presentation

Download Policy: Content on the Website is provided to you AS IS for your information and personal use and may not be sold / licensed / shared on other websites without getting consent from its author.While downloading, if for some reason you are not able to download a presentation, the publisher may have deleted the file from their server.


- - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - E N D - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -

Presentation Transcript


Ethics in engineering l.jpg

Ethics in Engineering

Jerry C. Collins

Department of Biomedical Engineering

Vanderbilt University


Overview of presentation l.jpg

Overview of Presentation

  • Fundamentals of Ethics

  • Ethics Education in Engineering

  • Codes of Ethics

    Accreditation Board for Engineering and Technology

    National Society of Professional Engineers

    IEEE

    ASME

    BMES

  • Examples of Ethical Dilemmas

  • Exercise in Ethical Decision Making


Slide3 l.jpg

Ethical issues permeate our world…


Slide4 l.jpg

“I always thought of myself as a man of science.”

“Then you’re in a state of conflict.”


Definitions of ethics l.jpg

Definitions ofEthics

  • The study of the general nature of morals and of the specific moral choices to be made by a person; moral philosophy.

  • The rules or standards governing the conduct of a person or the members of a profession: medical ethics.


Levels of technology l.jpg

Levels of Technology

  • Development and use of devices and techniques

    Software

    Products

    Gene-transfer vector

  • Effects that come in the wake of new devices and techniques

    Intensive care unit

    Living will

    Radioactive waste

  • Way of relating to the world

    Enhancement technologies

    Objects for human manipulation

    Rejection of given

    Humanity exerts power

    Humanity as creator, or created cocreator


Attitudes toward technology l.jpg

Attitudes toward Technology

“Even using the yardstick of the ancient Greeks, our whole modern existence is nothing but hubris and godlessness….

Hubris today characterizes our whole attitude towards nature, our rape of nature with the help of machines and the completely unscrupulous inventiveness of technicians and engineers.”

Friedrich Nietzsche, On the Genealogy

of Mortality, Cambridge Press, New

York, 1994, 86.


What is hubris l.jpg

What is “hubris?”

  • A Casey Clausen press conference

  • Detritus on the Outer Banks after a hurricane

  • Exaggerated pride or self-confidence


What is hubris9 l.jpg

What is “hubris?”

  • A Casey Clausen press conference

  • Detritus on the Outer Banks after a hurricane

  • Exaggerated pride or self-confidence


Slide10 l.jpg

Teaching engineering ethics . . . can achieve at least four desirable outcomes:

a) increased ethical sensitivity;

b) increased knowledge of relevant standards of conduct;

c) improved ethical judgment; and

d) improved ethical will-power (that is, a greater ability to act ethically when one wants to).

Davis, M. “Teaching ethics across the engineering curriculum.” Proceedings of International Conference on Ethics in Engineering and Computer Science. Available online at: http://onlineethics.org/essays/education/davis.html.


Slide11 l.jpg

Ethical responsibility...involves more than leading a decent, honest, truthful life. . . . And it involves something much more than making wise choices when such choices suddenly, unexpectedly present themselves. Our moral obligations must . . . include a willingness to engage others in the difficult work of defining the crucial choices that confront technological society . . . .

Langdon Winner, 1990. “Engineering ethics and political imagination.”Pp. 53-64 in Broad and Narrow Interpretations of Philosophy of Technology: Philosophy and Technology 7, edited by P. Durbin. Boston: Kluwer. Cited in Joseph R. Herkert, “Continuing and Emerging Issues in Engineering Ethics Education,” The Bridge, 32(3), 2002.


Professional codes of ethics l.jpg

Professional Codes of Ethics

  • Accreditation Board for Engineering and Technology (ABET)

  • National Society of Professional Engineers (NSPE)

  • Institute of Electrical and Electronic Engineers (IEEE)

  • American Society of Mechanical Engineers (ASME)

  • Biomedical Engineering Society (BMES)


Slide13 l.jpg

ABET (Accreditation Board for Engineering and Technology) Code of Ethics of Engineers

The Fundamental Principles

Engineers uphold and advance the integrity, honor, and dignity of the engineering profession by:

I. using their knowledge and skill for the enhancement of human welfare;

II. being honest and impartial, and serving with fidelity the public, their employers, and their clients;

III. striving to increase the competence and prestige of the engineering profession; and,

IV. supporting the professional and technical societies of their disciplines.


Slide14 l.jpg

Who are the groups to be benefited in the ABET Code of Ethics?


Slide15 l.jpg

ABET Code of Ethics of Engineers

The Fundamental Principles

Engineers uphold and advance the integrity, honor, and dignity of the engineering profession by:

I. using their knowledge and skill for the enhancement of human welfare;

II. being honest and impartial, and serving with fidelity the public, their employers, and their clients;

III. striving to increase the competence and prestige of the engineering profession; and,

IV. supporting the professional and technical societies of their disciplines.


Groups who benefit abet l.jpg

Groups Who Benefit (ABET)

  • The human family

  • Public

  • Employers

  • Clients

  • Profession

  • Professional and technical societies


Slide17 l.jpg

ABET Code of Ethics of Engineers

The Fundamental Canons

1. Engineers shall hold paramount the safety, health, and welfare of the public in the performance of their professional duties.

2. Engineers shall perform services only in the areas of their competence.

3. Engineers shall issue public statements only in an objective and truthful manner.

4. Engineers shall act in professional matters for each employer or client as faithful agents or trustees, and shall avoid conflicts of interest.

5. Engineers shall build their professional reputation on the merit of their services and shall not compete unfairly with others.

6. Engineers shall act in such a manner as to uphold and enhance the honor, integrity, and dignity of the profession.

7. Engineers shall continue their professional development throughout their careers and shall provide opportunities for the professional development of those engineers under their supervision.


Abet program outcomes l.jpg

ABET Program Outcomes

Engineering programs must demonstrate that their graduates have

  • Ability to apply knowledge of mathematics, science, engineering

  • Ability to design and conduct expts, analyze and interpret data

  • Ability to design system, component, or process

  • Ability to function on multidisciplinary teams

  • Ability to identify, formulate, and solve engineering problems

  • An understanding of professional and ethical responsibility

  • Ability to communicate effectively

  • Broad education necessary to understand engineering impact in a global and societal context

  • Recognition of need for and ability to engage in life-long learning

  • Knowledge of contemporary issues

  • Ability to use techniques, skills and modern engineering tools necessary for engineering practice


Ethics in abet program outcomes l.jpg

Ethics in ABET Program Outcomes

Engineering programs must demonstrate that their graduates have

  • Ability to apply knowledge of mathematics, science, engineering

  • Ability to design and conduct expts, analyze and interpret data

  • Ability to design system, component, or process

  • Ability to function on multidisciplinary teams

  • Ability to identify, formulate, and solve engineering problems

  • An understanding of professional and ethical responsibility

  • Ability to communicate effectively

  • Broad education necessary to understand engineering impact in a global and societal context

  • Recognition of need for and ability to engage in life-long learning

  • Knowledge of contemporary issues

  • Ability to use techniques, skills and modern engineering tools necessary for engineering practice


Engineering ethics education current state l.jpg

Engineering Ethics EducationCurrent State

  • Awareness of need is increasing

    • Social issues

    • ABET accreditation standards

  • 70% of accredited programs have no ethics course requirement (Stephan, 1999)

  • Key concept: "professional responsibility" (moral responsibility based on an individual's special knowledge) (Whitbeck, 1998).

  • Typical concerns: conflicts of interest, integrity of data, whistle-blowing, loyalty, accountability, giving credit where due, trade secrets, gift giving and bribes (Wujek and Johnson, 1992).

    Herkert, The Bridge, 32(3), 2002


Engineering ethical education issues to be considered l.jpg

Engineering Ethical Education Issues to be Considered

  • Ethical implications of public policy relevant to engineering:

    Sustainable development

    Health care

    Risk and product liability

    Information technology

  • Culturally embedded engineering practice (institutional and political aspects of engineering, such as contracting, regulation, and technology transfer)

  • Macroethical issues (e.g., overconsumption)

    Herkert, The Bridge, 32(3), 2002


Sustainable development l.jpg

Sustainable Development

The guiding principle of sustainable development is

development that meets the needs of the present without

compromising the ability of future generations to meet

their own needs. Sustainable development recognizes the

interdependence of environmental, social and economic

systems and promotes equality and justice through

people empowerment and a sense of global citizenship.

Whilst we cannot be sure what the future may bring, a

preferable future is a more sustainable one.

Encyclopedia of Sustainable Development

http://www.doc.mmu.ac.uk/aric/esd/menu.html


National society of professional engineers nspe code of ethics l.jpg

National Society of Professional Engineers (NSPE) Code of Ethics

. Fundamental Canons

Engineers, in the fulfillment of their professional duties, shall:

1. Hold paramount the safety, health and welfare of the public.

2. Perform services only in areas of their competence.

3. Issue public statements only in an objective and truthful manner.

4. Act for each employer or client as faithful agents or trustees.

5. Avoid deceptive acts.

6. Conduct themselves honorably, responsibly, ethically, and lawfully so as to enhance the honor, reputation, and usefulness of the profession.

(More extensive Rules of Practice follow in the Code)

http://www.nspe.org/ethics/eh1-code.asp


Ieee code of ethics l.jpg

IEEE Code of Ethics

  • We, the members of the IEEE, in recognition of the importance of our technologies in affecting the quality of life throughout the world, and in accepting a personal obligation to our profession, its members and the communities we serve, do hereby commit ourselves to the highest ethical and professional conduct and agree:

  • to accept responsibility in making engineering decisions consistent with the safety, health and welfare of the public, and to disclose promptly factors that might endanger the public or the environment;

  • 2. to avoid real or perceived conflicts of interest whenever possible, and to disclose them to affected parties when they do exist;  


Ieee code of ethics cont l.jpg

IEEE Code of Ethics (cont.)

3. to be honest and realistic in stating claims or estimates based on available data;  

4. to reject bribery in all its forms;

5. to improve the understanding of technology, its appropriate application, and potential consequences;  

6. to maintain and improve our technical competence and to undertake technological tasks for others only if qualified by training or experience, or after full disclosure of pertinent limitations;  

7. to seek, accept, and offer honest criticism of technical work, to acknowledge and correct errors, and to credit properly the contributions of others;  


Ieee code of ethics concl l.jpg

IEEE Code of Ethics (concl.)

8. to treat fairly all persons regardless of such factors as race, religion, gender, disability, age, or national origin;

9. to avoid injuring others, their property, reputation, or employment by false or malicious action;  

10. to assist colleagues and co-workers in their professional development and to support them in following this code of ethics.

http://www.ieee.org/portal/index.jsp?pageID=corp_level1&path=about/whatis&file=code.xml&xsl=generic.xsl


Asme code of ethics l.jpg

ASME Code of Ethics

  • Code of Ethics of Engineers

  • from The American Society of Mechanical Engineers

  • THE FUNDAMENTAL PRINCIPLES

  • Engineers uphold and advance the integrity, honor, and dignity of the Engineering profession by:

  • using their knowledge and skill for the enhancement of human welfare;

  • being honest and impartial, and serving with fidelity the public, their employers and clients, and

  • striving to increase the competence and prestige of the engineering profession.


Asme code of ethics28 l.jpg

ASME Code of Ethics

  • Code of Ethics of EngineersFrom ASME

  • THE FUNDAMENTAL CANONS

  • Engineers shall hold paramount the safety, health and welfare of the public in the performance of their professional duties.

  • Engineers shall perform services only in the areas of their competence.

  • Engineers shall continue their professional development throughout their careers and shall provide opportunities for the professional development of those engineers under their supervision.

  • Engineers shall act in professional matters for each employer or client as faithful agents or trustees, and shall avoid conflicts of interest.

  • Engineers shall build their professional reputations on the merit of their services and shall not compete unfairly with others.

  • Engineers shall associate only with reputable persons or organizations.

  • Engineers shall issue public statements only in an objective and truthful manner.


Bmes code of ethics l.jpg

BMES Code of Ethics

Biomedical engineering is a learned profession that combines expertise and responsibilities in engineering, science, technology, and medicine. Mindful that public health and welfare are paramount considerations in each of these areas, the Society identifies in this Code principles of ethical conduct in professional practice, health care, research, and training. This Code reflects voluntary standards of professional and personal practice recommended for biomedical engineers.

Biomedical Engineering Professional Obligations

Biomedical engineers in the fulfillment of their professional engineering duties shall:

 1. Use their knowledge, skills, and abilities to enhance the safety, health, and welfare of the public.

 2. Strive by action, example, and influence to increase the competence, prestige, and honor of the biomedical engineering profession.

Biomedical Engineering Health Care Obligations

Biomedical engineers involved in health care activities shall:

 1. Regard responsibility toward and rights of patients, including those of confidentiality and privacy, as a primary concern.

 2. Consider the broader consequences of their work in regard to cost, availability, and delivery of health care.


Bmes code of ethics cont l.jpg

BMES Code of Ethics (Cont.)

Biomedical Engineering Research Obligations

Biomedical engineers involved in research shall:

1. Comply fully with legal, ethical, institutional, governmental, and other applicable research guidelines, respecting the rights of and exercising the responsibilities to human and animal subjects, colleagues, the scientific community and the general public.

 2. Publish and/or present properly credited results of research accurately and clearly.

Biomedical Engineering Training Obligations

 Biomedical engineers entrusted with the responsibilities of training others shall:

 1. Honor the responsibility not only to train biomedical engineering students in proper professional conduct in performing research and publishing results, but also to model such conduct before them.

 2. Keep training methods and content free from inappropriate influence of special interests.


The dilemma of bioengineering research on human subjects l.jpg

THE DILEMMA OF BIOENGINEERING RESEARCH ON HUMAN SUBJECTS

“Times are difficult for researchers using human subjects.”

The Scientist 14:1, 2000.


The dilemma of bioengineering research on human subjects32 l.jpg

THE DILEMMA OF BIOENGINEERING RESEARCH ON HUMAN SUBJECTS

“Make the rules protecting patients too lax, and subjects will suffer and even die needlessly. Make them too strict, and lifesaving medications won’t make it out of the lab quickly enough to help the people who need them most.”

Time, April 22, 2002.


Timeline 1932 present l.jpg

2000 – OHRP

1999 – death of Jesse Gelsinger

TIMELINE: 1932 - present

1991 – The Common Rule (OHSR)

1979 – Belmont Report

1974 – National Research Act (OPRR)

1970 – Tuskegee Study exposed

1964 – Declaration of Helsinki

1947 – Nurem-berg Code

1950’s – Thalidomide tragedy

1940 – Nazi medical experiments


The nazi doctors l.jpg

THE NAZI DOCTORS

At a second trial of medical underlings, Dr. Edward Katzenellenbogen, a former member of the faculty of the Harvard Medical School, asked the court for the death sentence. “Any physician who committed the crimes I am charged with deserves to be killed,” he exclaimed. He was given life imprisonment.

Shirer WL. The Rise and Fall of the Third Reich, 1960.


Nuremberg code 1947 l.jpg

Nuremberg Code (1947)

“ethical yardstick against which defendants were judged”

  • informed consent

  • risk & benefit (equipoise)

  • subject can terminate her/his involvement

  • experiment should be based upon prior animal studies

  • only scientifically qualified individuals should conduct human experimentation

  • physical and mental suffering and injury should be avoided

  • there should be no expectation that death or disabling injury will occur from the experiment


Conditions for clinical trial participation l.jpg

Conditions for Clinical Trial Participation

  • Under what conditions would you participate in a clinical trial of a drug or device or procedure?

  • Under what conditions would you allow a friend or a member of your family to participate in a clinical trial?


Usphs study of syphilis l.jpg

USPHS Study of Syphilis

  • 1932: Started as a short study (6-8 months) with 200-300 syphilitic black males in Macon County

  • Free medical examinations

  • Not told of their disease, not treated

  • Study continued with yearly physicals


Conditions for clinical trial participation40 l.jpg

Conditions for Clinical Trial Participation

  • Under what conditions would you participate in a clinical trial of a drug or device or procedure?

  • Under what conditions would you allow a friend or a member of your family to participate in a clinical trial?


Ethics in abet program outcomes42 l.jpg

Ethics in ABET Program Outcomes

Engineering programs must demonstrate that their graduates have

  • Ability to apply knowledge of mathematics, science, engineering

  • Ability to design and conduct expts, analyze and interpret data

  • Ability to design system, component, or process

  • Ability to function on multidisciplinary teams

  • Ability to identify, formulate, and solve engineering problems

  • An understanding of professional and ethical responsibility

  • Ability to communicate effectively

  • Broad education necessary to understand engineering impact in a global and societal context

  • Recognition of need for and ability to engage in life-long learning

  • Knowledge of contemporary issues

  • Ability to use techniques, skills and modern engineering tools necessary for engineering practice


  • Login