Forces in earth s crust part 1
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Forces in Earth’s Crust Part 1. Stress : a force that acts on rock to change its shape or volume *The movement of Earth’s plates creates an enormous force that squeezes or pulls the rock in the crust . Three different types of stress can occur in the crust:. 1) Tension 2) Compression

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Stress: a force that acts on rock to change its shape or volume*The movement of Earth’s plates creates an enormous force that squeezes or pulls the rock in the crust


Three different types of stress can occur in the crust
Three different types of stress can occur in the crust:

  • 1) Tension

  • 2) Compression

  • 3) Shearing



Tension
Tension

*a stress force that pulls on the rock, stretching it so that it becomes thinner in the middle

*occurs when two plates are moving apart


Compression
Compression

  • Squeezes rock until it folds or breaks

  • One plate pushing against another can compress rock like a giant trash compactor


Shearing
Shearing

  • Stress that pushes a mass of rock in two opposite directions

  • Can cause rock to break and slip apart or to change shape


What is a fault
What is a Fault?

  • When a rock breaks as a result of stress build-up in the rock

  • A fault is a break in the rock of the crust where rock surfaces slip/grind past each other

  • Rocks on either side of a fault can move up, down, or sideways.


3 types of faults
3 Types of Faults

  • Normal Faults

  • Reverse Faults

  • Strike-slip Faults




Normal fault2
Normal Fault

  • Tension in the Earth’s crust pulls rock apart

  • The fault is at an angle, so one block of rock lies above the fault line while the other block lies below the fault line

  • Hanging Wall: The block of rock that lies above the fault line

  • Footwall: The block of rock that lies below the fault line


Normal fault3
Normal Fault

  • When movement occurs along a normal fault, the hanging wall slips downward

  • Normal faults are found along the Rio Grande rift valley in New Mexico




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