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Shawn Jeffery Minos Garofalakis Michael Franklin UC Berkeley Intel Research Berkeley UC Berkeley. Adaptive Cleaning for RFID Data Streams. VLDB 2006 9/12/06. RFID: Radio Frequency IDentification. RFID data is dirty. A simple experiment: 2 RFID-enabled shelves

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adaptive cleaning for rfid data streams

Shawn Jeffery Minos Garofalakis Michael Franklin

UC Berkeley Intel Research Berkeley UC Berkeley

Adaptive Cleaning for RFID Data Streams

VLDB 2006

9/12/06

rfid radio frequency identification
RFID: Radio Frequency IDentification

Shawn Jeffery

HiFi Project

UC Berkeley EECS

rfid data is dirty
RFID data is dirty
  • A simple experiment:
  • 2 RFID-enabled shelves
  • 10 static tags
  • 5 mobile tags

Shawn Jeffery

HiFi Project

UC Berkeley EECS

rfid data cleaning
RFID data has many dropped readings

Typically, use a smoothing filter tointerpolate

Smoothing Filter

RFID Data Cleaning

SELECT distinct tag_id

FROM RFID_stream [RANGE ‘5 sec’]

GROUP BY tag_id

But, how to set the size

of the window?

Smoothed output

Raw readings

Time

Shawn Jeffery

HiFi Project

UC Berkeley EECS

window size for rfid smoothing
Window Size for RFID Smoothing

Fido moving

Fido resting

Reality

Raw readings

Small window

Large window

 Need to balance completeness vs. capturing tag movement

Shawn Jeffery

HiFi Project

UC Berkeley EECS

truly declarative smoothing
Truly Declarative Smoothing
  • Problem: window size non-declarative
    • Application wants a clean stream of data
    • Window size is how to get it
  • Solution: adapt the window size in response to data

Shawn Jeffery

HiFi Project

UC Berkeley EECS

itinerary
Itinerary
  • Introduction: RFID data cleaning
  • A statistical sampling perspective
  • SMURF
    • Per-tag cleaning
    • Multi-tag cleaning
  • Ongoing work
  • Conclusions

Shawn Jeffery

HiFi Project

UC Berkeley EECS

a statistical sampling perspective
A Statistical Sampling Perspective
  • Key Insight:

RFID data 

random sample of present tags

  • Map RFID smoothing to a sampling experiment

Shawn Jeffery

HiFi Project

UC Berkeley EECS

rfid s gory details

Tags

E0

E1

E2

E3

E4

E5

E6

E7

E8

E9

Tag 1

Tag 2

Tag 3

Tag 4

RFID’s Gory Details

Antenna & reader

Read Cycle (Epoch)

Tag List

Shawn Jeffery

HiFi Project

UC Berkeley EECS

(For Alien readers)

rfid smoothing to sampling
RFID Smoothing to Sampling

 Now use sampling theory to drive adaptation!

Shawn Jeffery

HiFi Project

UC Berkeley EECS

smurf
SMURF
  • Statistical Smoothing for Unreliable RFID Data
  • Adapts window based on statistical properties
  • Mechanisms for:
    • Per-tag and multi-tag cleaning

Shawn Jeffery

HiFi Project

UC Berkeley EECS

per tag smoothing model and background

E0

E1

E2

E3

E4

E5

E6

E7

E8

E9

Per-Tag Smoothing: Model and Background
  • Use a binomial sampling model

1

Si

pi

piavg

(Read rate of tag i)

0

Time (epochs)

Smoothing Window

wi Bernoulli trials

Shawn Jeffery

HiFi Project

UC Berkeley EECS

per tag smoothing completeness

E0

E1

E2

E3

E4

E5

E6

E7

E8

E9

Per-Tag Smoothing: Completeness
  • If the tag is there, read it with high probability

 Want a large window

1

pi

0

Time (epochs)

Reading with a low pi

Expand the window

Shawn Jeffery

HiFi Project

UC Berkeley EECS

per tag smoothing completeness1
Per-Tag Smoothing: Completeness

Desired window size for tag i

With probability 1- 

Expected epochs needed to read

Shawn Jeffery

HiFi Project

UC Berkeley EECS

per tag smoothing transitions
Per-Tag Smoothing: Transitions
  • Detect transitions as statistically significant changes in the data

The tag has likely left by this point

1

pi

0

Time (epochs)

E0

E1

E2

E3

E4

E5

E6

E7

E8

E9

Statistically significant difference

Flag a transition and shrink the window

Shawn Jeffery

HiFi Project

UC Berkeley EECS

per tag smoothing transitions1
Per-Tag Smoothing: Transitions

# observed readings

# expected readings

Is the difference “statistically significant”?

Shawn Jeffery

HiFi Project

UC Berkeley EECS

smurf in action
SMURF in Action

Fido moving

Fido resting

SMURF

 Experiments with real and simulated data show similar results

Shawn Jeffery

HiFi Project

UC Berkeley EECS

multi tag cleaning
Multi-tag Cleaning
  • Some applications only need aggregates
    • E.g., count of items on each shelf
    • Don’t need to track each tag!
  • Use statistical mechanisms for both:
    • Aggregate computation
    • Window adaptation

Shawn Jeffery

HiFi Project

UC Berkeley EECS

aggregate computation
Aggregate Computation
  • –estimators (Horvitz-Thompson)
  • Count:
  • P[tag i seen in a window of size w]:

Use small windows to capture movement

Use the estimator to compensate for lost readings

Shawn Jeffery

HiFi Project

UC Berkeley EECS

window adaptation

E0

E1

E2

E3

E4

E5

E6

E7

E8

E9

Window Adaptation
  • Upper bound window similar to per-tag
  • “Transition” based on variance within subwindows

Nw

Count

Nw’

Time (epochs)

Shawn Jeffery

HiFi Project

UC Berkeley EECS

multi tag scenario
Multi-tag Scenario

Shawn Jeffery

HiFi Project

UC Berkeley EECS

ongoing work spatial smoothing
Ongoing Work: Spatial Smoothing
  • With multiple readers, more complicated

Two rooms, two readers per room

C

A

B

D

Reinforcement

 A? B? A U B? A B?

Arbitration

 A? C?

U

 All are addressed by statistical framework!

Shawn Jeffery

HiFi Project

UC Berkeley EECS

beyond rfid
Beyond RFID

Other sensor data

  • -estimator for other aggregates
  • Use SMURF for sensor networks
  • Use SMURF in general streaming systems (e.g., TelegraphCQ)
  • Remove RANGE clause from CQL

Other streaming data

Shawn Jeffery

HiFi Project

UC Berkeley EECS

related work
Related Work
  • Commercial RFID middleware
    • Smoothing filters: need to set smoothing window
  • RFID-related work
    • Rao et al., StreamClean: complementary
    • Intel Seattle, HiFi, ESP: static window size
  • BBQ, MauveDB
    • Heavyweight, model-based
    • SMURF is non-parametric, sampling-based
  • Statistical filters (digital signal processing)
    • Non-linear digital filters inspired SMURF design

Shawn Jeffery

HiFi Project

UC Berkeley EECS

conclusions
Conclusions
  • Current smoothing filters not adequate
    • Not declarative!
  • SMURF: Declarative smoothing filter
    • Uses statistical sampling to adapt window size

Shawn Jeffery

HiFi Project

UC Berkeley EECS

thanks
Thanks!

Questions?

[email protected]

Shawn Jeffery

HiFi Project

UC Berkeley EECS

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