18 th century social and economic change
Download
1 / 32

18 th Century Social and Economic Change - PowerPoint PPT Presentation


  • 104 Views
  • Uploaded on

18 th Century Social and Economic Change. The Dawn of the Agricultural and Industrial Revolutions. Economic and demographic changes. 1700, 80% of western Europeans were farmers; higher % in eastern Europe Most people lived in poverty.

loader
I am the owner, or an agent authorized to act on behalf of the owner, of the copyrighted work described.
capcha
Download Presentation

PowerPoint Slideshow about ' 18 th Century Social and Economic Change' - kaleigh-logan


An Image/Link below is provided (as is) to download presentation

Download Policy: Content on the Website is provided to you AS IS for your information and personal use and may not be sold / licensed / shared on other websites without getting consent from its author.While downloading, if for some reason you are not able to download a presentation, the publisher may have deleted the file from their server.


- - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - E N D - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
Presentation Transcript
18 th century social and economic change

18th Century Social and Economic Change

The Dawn of the Agricultural and Industrial Revolutions.


Economic and demographic changes
Economic and demographic changes

  • 1700, 80% of western Europeans were farmers; higher % in eastern Europe

  • Most people lived in poverty.

  • Significant population growth until 1650; slows down until 1750 when it starts to dramatically rise again.


Population explosion after 1750
Population Explosion after 1750

  • Limits to population growth before 1700: - famine, disease, war

  • Reasons for population growth:

    • disappearance of plague

    • improved sanitation,

    • improved transportation for food distribution (canal and road building in western Europe),

    • increased food supply (esp. potato).


Falling death rates
Falling Death Rates

  • With the exception of England, birth rates did not significantly rise, but death rates fell.

  • A better nourished population (due to better weather, better agricultural practices, and better transport) led to people living longer.


Impact of profit inflation
Impact of Profit Inflation

  • Inflation due to rising population and increased demand.

  • “Profit inflation” stimulated economic growth.

  • By the end of the 18th century, prices outperform wages, leading to hardship for the poor, particularly in France.

  • Wealth moved more and more from the poor to the wealthy due to high rents and low wages

  • Regressive tax structure that put the burden on the poor in France and much of the continent caused hardship and led to financial crises.


Protoindustrialization
Protoindustrialization

  • Cottage Industries: first and foremost a family enterprise (also called “putting-out” system)

    - Occurred during Agricultural Revolution

  • Putting-out system: city manufacturers took advantage of cheaper labor in the countryside

    • increased rural population eager to supplement agricultural income.

    • began to challenge urban craft industry



Economic innovation
Economic Innovation

  • Changes in Structure and Performance:

    • Performance – measured by output; generally identified through per capita productivity.

    • Structure – characteristics that support performance (laws, tax policies, technology, population, etc.)


Adam smith
Adam Smith

  • Smith criticized both guild and mercantile-based economic systems as restraining.

  • Promoted liaise-faire (i.e. classical liberalism) ideology in The Wealth of Nations (1776).

  • Free market economy based on division of labor and the fewest government restrictions as possible


Why britain
Why Britain?

  • Large supplies of coal and iron.

  • Navigable waterways and access to the sea. Expansion of roads (macadam in Britain, corvee in France).

  • Merchants had surplus capital from commercial revolution for investment.

  • Gov’t policies favorable to merchants (property rights, taxes, banking system)

  • Cultural innovation (dissenters) and free market ideas.

  • High standard of living; growing population driving demand.


Cotton
Cotton

  • Demand for cheap cotton goods at home and abroad made textiles the first to industrialize.

  • Cotton was cheap (slave labor) and durable.

  • “Putting-out” system could not keep up with demand (lack of organization, distance between workers); this required new system


Factory system
Factory System

  • The organization of labor in one location allowed for increased production.

  • The location of factories near rivers and/or seaports allowed for the transportation of goods to be easier and provided power supplies.

  • Location in urban areas provided cheap labor supply.

  • Introduction of machines increased per capita production.


Inventions
Inventions

  • 1733, John Kay: flying shuttle

  • 1764, James Hargreaves: spinning jenny

  • 1769, Richard Arkwright: water frame, which improved thread spinning.

  • 1780s, Edmund Cartwright: steam engine to power looms; factory production of textiles.

  • 1793, Eli Whitney, cotton gin


The steam engine
The Steam Engine

  • 1700 – Thomas Savery invents steam pump.

  • 1712 – Thomas Newcomen built steam engine to pump water from mines.

  • 1769 – James Watt creates more efficient steam engine.

  • By 1800, steam power was being used to power looms in factories across Britain.


Before the agricultural revolution
Before the Agricultural Revolution

  • open-field system: greatest accomplishment of Medieval agriculture

  • village agriculture; 1/3 to ½ of fields lay fallow.

  • Common land: used by village for livestock – fields shared by peasants.

  • serfs in eastern Europe were worst off; many sold with lands (like slavery)


The agricultural revolution
The Agricultural Revolution

  • Agricultural Revolution: major milestone in human civilization

  • impact of the scientific revolution’s experimental method was great

  • Application of scientific ideas - crop rotation most important feature.


Enclosure movement
Enclosure Movement

  • end to common lands and open-field system

  • agriculturalists (land owners) consolidated lands and closed them off

  • game laws in England prohibited peasants from hunting game

  • caused considerable friction in the countryside in 17th and 18th centuries


Impact of enclosure
Impact of Enclosure

  • traditional view of enclosure (Marx): poor people driven off the land

  • recent scholarship: negative impact of enclosure may have been exaggerated

  • As much as 50% of lands enclosed already by 1750 (much by mutual consent)

  • 1700: ratio of landless farmer to landowner = 2:1; not much greater in 1800


Low countries
Low Countries

  • Netherlands and Belgium (Austrian Netherlands) took the lead in agricultural innovations

  • Increased population meant more food had to be produced

  • Cornelius Vermuyden: important in drainage of swamp lands into useful farm land.

  • Huge impact on southern England.


England
England

  • Viscount Charles Townsend (1674-1738): improved soil by crop rotation (turnips)

  • Bog and marshes drained extensively, manured heavily, regular crop rotation w/o fallowing

  • Jethro Tull (1674-1741): seed drill; more efficient than scattering seeds by hand

  • Robert Bakewell (1720-1795) selective breeding of ordinary livestock (animal husbandry): created larger animals.


Atlantic economy in the 17 th and 18 th centuries
Atlantic Economy in the 17th and 18th Centuries

  • Characteristics

    • World trade became fundamental

    • Spain and Portugal revitalized their empires and began drawing more wealth from renewed development.

    • Netherlands, Great Britain, and France benefited most; Great Britain the leading maritime power.

    • Britain’s commercial leadership based on mercantilism

    • Navigation Laws: aimed to reduce Dutch trade in Atlantic region (1st in 1651, Cromwell)


Atlantic slave trade
Atlantic Slave Trade

  • Basis of the Triangular Trade System.

  • Nearly 10 million transported.

  • Millions more died in the ordeal.

  • In the 1780s, European participation died off, but it was not outlawed by Britain until 1807.


South sea bubble
South Sea Bubble

  • South Sea Bubble: responsible for exploiting the asiento other commercial privileges won from Spain after Treaty of Utrecht (1713)

  • Took over large portion of public debt by receiving gov’t bonds in return for shares of its stock.

  • Stock values soared but the “bubble” burst in 1720

  • England recovered better than France who had created a Mississippi Bubble for New Orleans commerce.

  • “Bubble Act”: forbade joint-stock companies, except those chartered by gov’t


3 anglo dutch wars 1652 74
3 Anglo-Dutch wars (1652-74)

  • hurt Dutch shipping and commerce

  • Netherlands’ “golden age”: during 1st half of 17th century, now in decline


Colonial wars britain v france
Colonial Wars: Britain v. France

  • War of Spanish Succession (Queen Anne’s War) (1701-1713)

  • Treaty of Utrecht (1713):

    • Britain received asiento (slave trade) from Spain

    • Britain allowed to send 1 ship of merchandise annually into Panama

    • Britain received control of Nova Scotia, Newfoundland and


Colonial wars britain v france1
Colonial Wars: Britain v. France

  • War of Jenkins’ Ear (1739): started over Spanish anger over British abuse of asiento.

  • Expanded into War of Austrian Succession the following year

  • War of Austrian Succession (King George’s War) (1740-1748)

  • Treaty of Aix-la-Chapelle (1748): restored status quo prior to war


Colonial wars britain v france2
Colonial Wars: Britain v. France

  • Seven Years War (French and Indian War, The Great War for Empire) (1754-1763) Continental War primary between Prussia and Austria.

  • Global war in North America, Caribbean and India.

  • William Pitt the Elder: successfully led war effort from Parliament for UK; British naval superiority won the day.

Flag of Maryland Militia under G. Washington, defeated at Ft. Duquesne


Colonial wars britain v france3
Colonial Wars: Britain v. France

  • Robert Clive defeats French backers in India at the Battle of Plassey (June 1557)

  • General Wolfe defeated Montcalm on the Plains of Abraham (Battle of Quebec) in Sept. 1759.

  • Treaty of Paris (1763):

    • Britain gained all French territory in North America (Canada and the US Midwest)

    • Spain gained New Orleans and Louisiana.

    • Removed French from significant position in India.


British in india
British in India

  • Took advantage of the teetering Mughal Empire.

  • The British East India Company grew in power; ruled Bengal.

  • India Act of 1784 placed India under control of British gov’t

  • The British Raj transformed India into the “Jewel of the British Crown” in the 19th century.


Spanish colonies
Spanish Colonies

  • Spain’s Latin American colonies: helped revitalize Spanish empire in 18th c.

    • gold and silver mining recovered

    • significant trade with mother country

  • Creoles elite came to rival top Spanish authorities (about 10% of population)

  • Mestizos increased to about 20% of population

    • black slavery in Cuba and Puerto Rico


Portuguese colonies
Portuguese Colonies

  • Portuguese Brazil: about 50% of population African by early 19th c.

  • more successful in blending races than in Spanish colonies or United States

  • Slavery remained in place until the end of the 19th century.


ad