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Principles for a Sustainable Landscape. Water-Efficient Landscaping is a Major Component of Sustainable Landscaping which: “meets the needs of today’s population without diminishing the ability of future populations to meet their needs.” . Sustainable Landscapes.

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Water-Efficient Landscaping is a Major Component of Sustainable Landscaping which:

“meets the needs of today’s population without diminishing the ability of future populations to meet their needs.”


Sustainable landscapes
Sustainable Landscapes Sustainable Landscaping which:

  • Incorporate plants suited for the climate

  • Conserve water

  • Nurture and protect soil

  • Prevent/reduce pest problems

  • Conserve energy/reduce Pollution

  • Encourage wildlife


Why garden sustainably
Why Garden Sustainably? Sustainable Landscaping which:


Sustainable landscaping
Sustainable Landscaping Sustainable Landscaping which:……

Leaves a greener footprint for our children’s children


Sustainable landscapes1

Sustainable Landscapes Sustainable Landscaping which:

Incorporate plants suitable for climate/location

Conserve water

Nurture and protect soil

Prevent/reduce pest problems

Conserve energy/Reduce pollution

Encourage wildlife


Select plants recommended for your sunset zone

Select plants recommended for your Sustainable Landscaping which:Sunset Zone


And Microclimate Sustainable Landscaping which:

(shade, etc.)


Microclimates impact plant health and water use

Microclimates Impact Plant Health and Water Use Sustainable Landscaping which:


Water needs increase in heat islands
Water Needs increase in Heat Islands Sustainable Landscaping which:

  • Landscape plants in heat islands require up to 50% more water than the same species in park settings


Sustainable landscapes conserve water through
Sustainable Landscapes Sustainable Landscaping which:Conserve Water Through:

1. Hydrozoning

2. Scheduling irrigations based on plant needs

3. Making sure sprinklers/drip systems work properly

4. Using mulch and soil amendments effectively


Hydrozone place plants with similar water needs together and irrigate them accordingly
Hydrozone Sustainable Landscaping which: : Place plants with similar water needs together and irrigate them accordingly


Drip Irrigate Trees, Shrubs, and Gardens to Reduce Soil Evaporation and to Apply Water Directly into Root Zones


Warm-Season Lawns (Bermuda) Use Less Water than Cool-season Lawns (Tall Fescue) Lawn Watering Guide for Californiahttp://ucanr.org/freepubs/docs/8044.pdf


To prevent water waste and brown spots in turf and groundcovers, repair leaks, low heads, broken sprinklers, unmatched sprinklers and pressure and spacing problems


If you keep your lawn grasscycle

If you Keep your Lawn, groundcovers, repair leaks, low heads, broken sprinklers, unmatched sprinklers and pressure and spacing problemsGrasscycle!

Saves time/money

Adds organic matter to lawn

Recycles nutrients

Reduces greenwaste in landfills


Uc verde below

UC Verde groundcovers, repair leaks, low heads, broken sprinklers, unmatched sprinklers and pressure and spacing problems(below)


Calliandra californica baja fairy duster

CALLIANDRA CALIFORNICA groundcovers, repair leaks, low heads, broken sprinklers, unmatched sprinklers and pressure and spacing problemsBAJA FAIRY DUSTER

Mature plants reach a size of 4 to 6 feet tall and wide. Baja red fairy duster does well in full sun

or part shade, and is tolerant


St. Elmo’s Fire ( groundcovers, repair leaks, low heads, broken sprinklers, unmatched sprinklers and pressure and spacing problemsRusselia)

- 3’ by 4’

  • Fast growing

  • Desert hardy


Ca natives for lawn replacement
CA Natives for Lawn Replacement groundcovers, repair leaks, low heads, broken sprinklers, unmatched sprinklers and pressure and spacing problems

  • Ceanothusmaritimus

    • Tolerates clay soil

    • Blue flowers

    • Low-growing, spreading


It s more than just cactus
It’s More Than Just Cactus! groundcovers, repair leaks, low heads, broken sprinklers, unmatched sprinklers and pressure and spacing problems


Parkinsonia hybrid ‘Desert Museum’ groundcovers, repair leaks, low heads, broken sprinklers, unmatched sprinklers and pressure and spacing problems

DESERT MUSEUM PALO VERDE

Hybrid with a thornless sturdy structure and strong vertical form. Mature size: 25 feet to 30 feet with 20-foot spread. Spring flowers.


Ebanopsis groundcovers, repair leaks, low heads, broken sprinklers, unmatched sprinklers and pressure and spacing problemsebano

(Texas Ebony)

Dense, dark green leaves and spiny twigs; great security barrier. Desirable tree for a small garden. Slow growth to 20 to 30 feet with a spread of 15 to 20 feet Fragrant, cream-colored flowers in late spring


Leather leaf acacia acacia craspedocarpa

Leather Leaf Acacia groundcovers, repair leaks, low heads, broken sprinklers, unmatched sprinklers and pressure and spacing problems(Acacia craspedocarpa)


Desert Whitecap groundcovers, repair leaks, low heads, broken sprinklers, unmatched sprinklers and pressure and spacing problems

Evergreen perennial with large 4-inch white flowers. Blooms on and off but most prolific in spring. Plants form rounded clumps 1 to 1-1/2’ feet high and 3’ wide.


Desert Trees and Shrubs for Windbreaks groundcovers, repair leaks, low heads, broken sprinklers, unmatched sprinklers and pressure and spacing problems

Acacia aneura, Mulga AcaciaBrachychiton populneus, Bottle TreeCeratonia siliqua, CarobCupressus arizonica, Arizona CypressCupressus glabra 'Gareei', Rough Bark Cypress Eucalyptus microtheca, Coolibah TreeEucalyptus spathulata, Swamp MaleePinus eldarica, Afghan PinePinus pinea, Italian Stone PineRhus lancea, African Sumac


Water cycling may be necessary to avoid run-off. Divide the total amount of water required per day into 2-4 cycles. Apply water as close to initial event as possible before soil dries out.


Irrigate deeply and infrequently and monitor soil moisture
Irrigate Deeply and Infrequently and Monitor Soil Moisture total amount of water required per day into 2-4 cycles. Apply water as close to initial event as possible before soil dries out.

Soil probe

Soil sampling tube


Other methods to conserve water in the landscape

Other Methods to total amount of water required per day into 2-4 cycles. Apply water as close to initial event as possible before soil dries out. Conserve Water in the Landscape


Minimize the use of water to clean sidewalks and driveways total amount of water required per day into 2-4 cycles. Apply water as close to initial event as possible before soil dries out.


Remove weeds that compete with landscape plants for water
Remove weeds that compete with landscape plants for water total amount of water required per day into 2-4 cycles. Apply water as close to initial event as possible before soil dries out.


Improve water holding capacity and or drainage with compost mixed evenly into soil 6 1
Improve Water-Holding Capacity and/or Drainage with Compost Mixed Evenly into Soil (6” – 1’)


Don t let water get away permeable surfaces infiltration basins

Don’t Let Water Get Away! Mixed Evenly into Soil Permeable surfaces Infiltration Basins

Water Collection


Apply mulch around plants
Apply Mulch Around Plants Mixed Evenly into Soil



Avoid over fertilizing

Avoid Over-fertilizing Mixed Evenly into Soil

Creates flushes of weak growth

Increases water requirement


Avoid soil compaction

Avoid Soil Compaction Mixed Evenly into Soil

Keep construction activities several feet from landscape plantings

Incorporate organic soil amendments (except for tree planting sites)


Soil compaction
Soil Compaction Mixed Evenly into Soil

  • Wastes water

  • Decreases aeration/drainage/root growth

  • Can result in fungal diseases

  • Can result in plant decline

    and death


Irrigate sloped landscapes slowly and deeply to prevent runoff

Irrigate Sloped Landscapes Slowly and Deeply to Prevent Runoff

Prevents loss of valuable soil

Prevents Pollution of Ground and Surface Waters


Principles of sustainable landscaping
Principles of Sustainable Landscaping Runoff

  • Climatically/microclimatically Selected Plants

  • Water Efficient/Hydrozoned

  • Pollution Friendly (water quality, noise, dust)

  • Employs Integrated Pest Management

  • Reduces, Recycles, and Reuses Greenwaste


Composting Runoff

It’s Recycling…

Naturally


What is compost

Compost Runoff

What is compost?

An organic soil conditioner created by decomposing organic matter under controlled conditions until it is stable enough to improve soils without harming plants or transmitting disease.

Grass clippings

Food scraps

Leaves


The CA Waste Management Runoff Act (Assembly Bill 929)

  • Divert 25% of organic matter destined for landfills by 1995

  • Divert 50% by 2000




Composting yard wastes
Composting Yard Wastes cannot be recycled or composted

  • In CA, yard wastes are the largest component of municipal waste

  • Grass clippings comprise approximately half of the yard trimmings deposited in state landfills.

  • An average California turf area produces 300 to 400 pounds of grass clippings per 1,000 square feet annually (up to 8 tons per acre).


High quality soils
High Quality Soils cannot be recycled or composted

  • Good Physical Properties (structure and texture)

  • Adequate Nutrients (N, P, K, etc.)

  • Healthy Biota (beneficial microbes that decompose organic matter and cycle nutrients and mycorrhizae)

  • Adequate Organic Matter


Soil textures
Soil Textures cannot be recycled or composted


Soil textures types
Soil Textures (Types) cannot be recycled or composted


Compost
Compost cannot be recycled or composted

  • Improves soil tilth

  • Improves water and nutrient holding capacity

  • Improves drainage in heavy soils

  • Prevents/reduces erosion

  • Improves soil aeration

  • May decrease chemical fertilizer requirement

  • Remediates chemically damaged soils

  • Increases number and range of microbes

  • Filters storm water runoff


Compost is not a fertilizer
Compost is Not a Fertilizer cannot be recycled or composted

  • Nitrogen and phosphorus are mostly in organic forms

    • Released slowly to plants

    • Not readily leached from the topsoil

  • Compost contains many trace nutrients that are essential for plant growth


Creating quality compost
Creating Quality Compost cannot be recycled or composted

  • Compost is generated when organic matter is consumed and decomposed by microbes under favorable conditions

    • Nutrient balance

    • Moisture

    • Temperature

    • Aeration


When is compost mature
When is Compost Mature? cannot be recycled or composted

  • Dark brown

  • Crumbly, loose,

    and humus-like

  • Earthy smell

  • Contains no readily

    recognizable feedstock

  • The pile has shrunk to

    about 1/3 of its original volume


Stability and maturity of finished compost
Stability and Maturity of Finished Compost cannot be recycled or composted

Bag test: sealing compost in a plastic bag for several days should produce no foul odor

Germination test: radish or fast germinating seeds


Compost quality testing and use standards
Compost Quality, cannot be recycled or compostedTesting, and Use Standards

  • End uses (eg: soil amendment, mulch) depend on compost physical, chemical, and biological qualities

  • Selecting the right product very important for success

  • Fortunately, standards have been developed to guarantee product consistency


Us composting council quality assurance
US Composting Council Quality Assurance cannot be recycled or composted

  • During the 1990’s labs used different testing procedures and tests that were not comparable among labs

  • Standardized testing procedures developed in 2000


Three components
Three Components: cannot be recycled or composted

  • TMECC: Test Methods for the Evaluation of Composting and Compost

  • STA: Seal of Testing Assurance Program

  • CAP: Compost Analysis Proficiency Program


Three components1
Three Components: cannot be recycled or composted

  • TMECC: Test Methods for the Evaluation of Composting and Compost

  • STA: Seal of Testing Assurance Program

  • CAP: Compost Analysis Proficiency Program


Acp compost use index
ACP Compost Use Index cannot be recycled or composted

  • Collaboration of the Association of Compost Producers and University of California for indexing composts based on their suitability for various uses

  • Includes 14 test parameters


Preferred ranges
Preferred Ranges cannot be recycled or composted

  • pH: 6.5 – 7.5 when used as a soil amendment

  • Soluble Salts: Expressed as electrical conductivity (EC) in decisiemens per meter. EC values for composts and soils are not directly comparable. Many plants are damaged by soil ECs of greater than 2.0 dS/m.

  • Trace Elements/Micronutrients: zinc, manganese, iron VS arsenic, cadmium, lead, mercury, etc.


Compost uses in the landscape
Compost Uses in cannot be recycled or compostedthe Landscape

  • Soil Amendment

  • Mulch

  • Turf topdressing

  • Erosion Control Agent

  • Water Quality Enhancer


Soil amendment
Soil Amendment cannot be recycled or composted

  • Most common landscape use

  • Turf, groundcovers, shrubs, annual and perennial beds

  • Not recommended for tree planting sites



Figure 1. C cannot be recycled or compostedomposted greenwaste prior to amending into native sandy loam soil at University of California, Riverside.


Avoid root bound trees
Avoid root bound trees! cannot be recycled or composted


Soil compaction1
Soil Compaction cannot be recycled or composted


Amending soil with compost
Amending Soil With Compost cannot be recycled or composted

  • Amend entire planting site or bed when possible, adding at least 30% compost to original soil

  • Or, dig hole at least 3 times the size of root ball

  • Thoroughly mix compost at least 6 inches deep

  • Plant at original depth (not too deep)

  • Irrigate immediately and deeply


Compost criteria for use as soil amendment
Compost Criteria for Use as Soil Amendment cannot be recycled or composted

  • 95% should clear a 5/8” screen and at least 70% should clear a 3/8” screen

  • Organic Matter content: 30 – 65%

  • C:N ratio: 20:1 or lower

  • pH: 6.0 – 8.5

  • Soluble Salts: sodium less than 25% of total


Criteria con d
Criteria (Con’d) cannot be recycled or composted

  • Moisture content: 30 – 60%

  • Contaminants: (glass, plastic, metal) less than .5% by weight

  • Maturity: Dark color and no offensive odor


Thank You! cannot be recycled or compostedJanet [email protected] and Use/Print PowerPoints http://ucanr.org/filevault


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