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Building a Better International NGO “ Greater than the Sum of the parts ”. Flow …. Development progress - Good news .. But!! .. All not rosy .. Challenges facing international NGOs Book is trying to say. Flow …. Good news. Local energy & vibrancy. Education getting better ….

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slide2
Flow …
  • Development progress - Good news ..
  • But!! .. All not rosy ..
  • Challenges facing international NGOs
  • Book is trying to say ..
slide3
Flow …
  • Good news ..
some good news in development landscape
Some good news in development landscape
  • Growth & Opportunity - Africa
  • Less a political/religious football pitch
  • Governance & Democracy … gradually …
some good news in development landscape1
Some good news in development landscape
  • Growth & Opportunity - Africa
  • Less a political/religious football pitch
  • Governance & Democracy … gradually …
  • Unexploited resources
some good news in development landscape2
Some good news in development landscape
  • Growth & Opportunity - Africa
  • Less a political/religious football pitch
  • Governance & Democracy … gradually …
  • Unexploited resources
  • Private sector investment (FDI)
annual fdi inflows in uganda million us 1990 2009
Annual FDI Inflows in Uganda (million US $), 1990 - 2009

Source: UNCTAD, World Investment Reports

some good news in development landscape3
Some good news in development landscape
  • Growth & Opportunity - Africa
  • Less a political/religious football pitch
  • Governance & Democracy … gradually …
  • Unexploited resources
  • Private sector
  • Internet / ICT
penetration of mobile cellular and internet
Penetration of mobile cellular and internet

Mobile cellular subscriptions by level of development, 1998 - 2009

Internet users by level of development, 1998 - 2009

Note: * Estimates.

Source: ITU World Telecommunication/ ICT Indicators database

Source: UN International Telecommunication Union (ITU); ‘Measuring the Information Society Report’ 2010, 23rd February 2010

fast growing cellphone footprint
Fast growing cellphone footprint ..

Source: Africa Infrastructure Country Diagnostic

some good news in development landscape4
Some good news in development landscape
  • Growth & Opportunity - Africa
  • Less a political/religious football pitch
  • Governance & Democracy … gradually …
  • Unexploited resources
  • Private sector
  • Internet / ICT
  • More thoughtful aid
slide19
Flow …
  • Development progress - Good news ..
  • But!! .. All not rosy ..
but all is not rosy
.. But all is not rosy ..
  • Very delicate balance (Snakes and Ladders)
but all is not rosy1
.. But all is not rosy ..
  • Very delicate balance (Snakes and Ladders)
  • Journey from stability to stability is long and risky
  • Poverty landscape is more complex
but all is not rosy2
.. But all is not rosy ..
  • Very delicate balance (Snakes and Ladders)
  • Journey from stability to stability is long and risky
  • Poverty landscape is more complex
  • Oil & Mineral resources has the opportunity to wreck the African continent
slide29
Flow …
  • Development progress - Good news ..
  • But!! .. All not rosy ..
  • Challenges facing international NGOs
question marks ingo point of inflection
.. Question marks?  iNGO - Point of inflection?
  • Welcomed ? Cumulative resentment?
  • Contribution being challenged: Results agenda!
question marks ingo point of inflection1
.. Question marks?  iNGO - Point of inflection?
  • Welcomed ? Cumulative resentment?
  • Contribution being challenged: Results agenda!
  • “Disruptive” technologies/changes (ICT4D)
  • Squeezed: Role as intermediary?
          • Closing gap (internet, global media, globalisation, trade & investment, +)
  • Squeezed: Very large contracts & local NGOs?
  • Innovation record ?
question marks ingo point of inflection2
.. Question marks?  iNGO - Point of inflection?
  • Welcomed ? Cumulative resentment?
  • Contribution being challenged: Results agenda!
  • Squeezed: Role as intermediary?
          • Closing gap (internet, global media, globalisation, trade & investment, +)
  • “Disruptive” technologies/changes (ICT4D)
  • Squeezed: Very large contracts & local NGOs?
  • Innovation record ?
  • Adapting to new areas/ opportunities?
          • e.g. trade & enterprise - “green space”;ICT4D
economic flywheel of developing economies
Economic flywheel of developing economies ,,

Infrastructure

Institutional Capacity Building

Enterprise Development and Expansion

Agricultural

Value Chain

Education

Aid

FDI

Trade

Technology (ICT)

Oil Revenues

National Content

Health

Housing

question marks ingo point of inflection3
.. Question marks?  iNGO - Point of inflection?
  • Welcomed ? Cumulative resentment?
  • Contribution being challenged: Results agenda!
  • Squeezed: Role as intermediary?
          • Closing gap (internet, global media, globalisation, trade & investment, +)
  • “Disruptive” technologies/changes (ICT4D)
  • Squeezed: Very large contracts & local NGOs?
  • Innovation record ?
  • Adapting to new areas/ opportunities?
          • e.g. trade & enterprise - “green space”;ICT4D
  • Efforts by the iNGOS to strengthen – slow!!
slide38
Flow …
  • Development progress - Good news ..
  • But!! .. All not rosy ..
  • Challenges facing international NGOs
  • Book is trying to say ..
key messages from the book
Key messages from the book
  • Step change not optional: > overdue!!
          • Organisational model/capacity; focus & positioning +
          • Either Greater than the sum of parts or ???
why typical drivers
Why? Typical drivers

Strategy

Donors

  • New Strategy: Translating strategy into decisions and focus: Growth
  • Donor expectations ( e.g. major grants)
  • Funding return on Investment/growth
  • Programme Quality/Impact
  • Alignment on“Theory of Change”& programmatic approach & M&E
  • Programme learning & knowledge management
  • Innovation and scaling
  • Ability to act across borders/regionally/globally
  • Footprint rationalisation
  • High performance/inspiring environment for talent
  • Clarity/Duplication/Efficiency: Roles & Responsibility
  • Decision making: Optimisation of resources/expertise/investment
  • Agility/Flexibility: Use of resources/expertise/investment
  • Regional Structure/Regional Offices/
  • North-South Power – Rebalancing
  • Joined up Planning, performance management and accountability
  • Harmonising/strengthening enabling processes / systems/ functions
  • Long term Legitimacy & Relevance
  • Reputation/Global Coherence/Risk

Programme Quality/ Consistency /

Learning

Organisational performance

Green Peace

LTO

SOS Villages

key messages from the book1
Key messages from the book
  • Step change not optional: > overdue!!
          • Organisational model/capacity; focus & positioning +
          • Either Greater than the sum of parts or ???
  • Interlinked set of changes
exhibit 6 7 interrelated dimensions of progress
Exhibit 6.7 – Interrelated dimensions of progress

Governance Boards, & Decision Making

Donor pressures, preferences

Org Model/ Structure

Leadership style, behaviour, capacity

Global processes and systems

Integrated planning & accountability

“Theory of Change”

key messages from the book2
Key messages from the book
  • Step change not optional: > overdue!!
          • Organisational model/capacity; focus & positioning +
          • Either Greater than the sum of parts or ???
  • Interlinked set of changes
  • Credible at global and local levels
  • Theory of Change – centre stage
  • New opportunities: ICT4D: Green space +
  • Efficient & Effective, YES … but seek BREAKTHROUGHS!!
greater than the sum of the parts
Greater than the “Sum of the parts”?
  • Getting in Shape? … How to make a large international NGO be more than the sum of the parts?
  • Good at what? .. The Core Competences of an international NGO: What are they? What do they need to be?
  • Evolving structuresof international NGOs … is there a right answer?
  • Reinventing the international NGO through new technology possibilities (ICT4D)
  • Strategic planning for large international development and relief agencies: Reflections and Perspectives
  • Integrated planning, performance and accountability for large international NGOs (Draft)
  • What does all this mean?
building a better international ngo greater than the sum of the parts chapter 1 getting in shape

Building a Better International NGO“Greater than the Sum of the parts”Chapter 1: Getting in Shape

the problem frequent criticisms
The problem … frequent criticisms
  • Decision making is too slow and consensual
  • Inefficiency or duplication across different parts of the organisation
  • Disjointed ways of working, disjointed processes, disjointed decisions, disjointed initiatives
  • Over protective of local node of organisation, unable to see the bigger picture of the whole ..
  • Headquarters make decisions without understanding the realities of work in the field ..
  • Leadership behaviors are not always a shining example: criticisms re humility, respect, management discipline
  • Not making as much impact as we could or should …
exhibit 1 7 generic decision making framework
Exhibit 1.7 – Generic decision making framework

Centre of gravity of decision making

The organisation levels involved

HEADQUARTERS

REGION

BUSINESS UNIT

PRODUCT/

LINE OF BUS.

HQ/Secretariat

Lead Entity/s

Prog. Country

Predominantly funding entity

Global strategic planning

Country strategic planning

Partnerships & Alliances

Brand development & management

New Opportunities & Business Dev

Skills & Competence Development

Organisat Struct. Values, Culture

HR & Individual Performance Mgmt

Finance & Procurement

IT systems

Internal & External relations / Comms

Risk Management / Assurance

Knowledge Management

Bus Planning & Performance Mgmt

Marketing / Fundraising

Research

Program - Development

Program – Campaigning/Advocacy

Program – Humanitarian

Monitoring and Evaluation

CRAFT

STRATEGY

BUILD

THE

BUSINESS

SUPPORT

OPS

RUN

OPS

exhibit 1 8 profile for a generic ngo
Exhibit 1.8 – Profile for a generic NGO

Centre of gravity of decision making

The organisation levels involved

BUSINESS UNIT

HEADQUARTERS

REGION

PRODUCT/

LINE OF BUS.

HQ/Secretariat

Lead Entity/s

Prog. Country

Predominantly funding entity

Global strategic planning

Country strategic planning

Partnerships & Alliances

Brand development & management

New Opportunities & Business Dev

Skills & Competence Development

Organisat Struct. Values, Culture

HR & Individual Performance Mgmt

Finance & Procurement

IT systems

Internal & External relations / Comms

Risk Management / Assurance

Knowledge Management

Bus Planning & Performance Mgmt

Marketing / Fundraising

Research

Program - Development

Program – Campaigning/Advocacy

Program – Humanitarian

Monitoring and Evaluation

CRAFT

STRATEGY

BUILD

THE

BUSINESS

SUPPORT

OPS

f)

RUN

OPS

e) Weak Product / LOB dimension

b) Vertical fracture

d) Regions “caught in middle”

decision making
Decision making ….
  • Where to invest non-restricted income?
  • Which kinds of opportunities to pursue/ invest? Go/No Go?
  • What geographical footprint to invest in ?
  • What donor relationships to invest in ?
  • How to maximise the contribution of scarce talent/expertise across the organisation?
  • Who to promote? Select for key roles?
  • How and where to grow talent and expertise for the future?
  • What new talent to bring on board and nurture?
  • Where to force consistency? .. Or leave to local discretion?

+ + +

greater than the sum of the parts1
Greater than the “Sum of the parts”?
  • Getting in Shape? … How to make a large international NGO be more than the sum of the parts?
  • Good at what? .. The Core Competences of an international NGO: What are they? What do they need to be?
  • Evolving structuresof international NGOs … is there a right answer?
  • Reinventing the international NGO through new technology possibilities (ICT4D)
  • Strategic planning for large international development and relief agencies: Reflections and Perspectives
  • Integrated planning, performance and accountability for large international NGOs (Draft)
  • What does all this mean?
slide52

Building a Better International NGO“Greater than the Sum of the parts”Chapter 2: Good at what? Core Competencies of international NGOs

chapter 2 good at what core competencies
Chapter 2: Good at What? Core competencies ..
  • Why a rethink?
  • The idea of core competencies
  • Core competencies of international NGOs ?
        • Now?
        • In the future?
why a rethink
Why a rethink ?
  • Ongoing shift in development thinking
  • Evidence of sustainable impact
  • Involvement of private sector
  • New types of organisations ( for profit and not for profit)
  • New areas of need
  • Waves of new technological possibilities
exhibit 2 1 the roots of competitiveness
Exhibit 2.1 - The roots of competitiveness ..

End Products

1

2

3

1

2

3

1

2

3

Business 1

Business 2

Business 3

“It is essential to make the distinction between core competencies, core products, and end products because global competition is played out by different rules and for different stakes at different levels”

Prahalad and Hamel, The Core Competence of the Corporation.

Core Product 1

Core Product 2

Competence 1

Competence 2

Capability Building Block 1

Capability Building Block 2

Capability Building Block 3

Capability Building Block 4

Capability Building Block 5

greater than the sum of the parts2
Greater than the “Sum of the parts”?
  • Getting in Shape? … How to make a large international NGO be more than the sum of the parts?
  • Good at what? .. The Core Competences of an international NGO: What are they? What do they need to be?
  • Evolving structuresof international NGOs … is there a right answer?
  • Reinventing the international NGO through new technology possibilities (ICT4D)
  • Strategic planning for large international development and relief agencies: Reflections and Perspectives
  • Integrated planning, performance and accountability for large international NGOs (Draft)
  • What does all this mean?
slide57

Building a Better International NGO“Greater than the Sum of the parts”Chapter 3: Evolving Structures; ….. Is there a right answer?

what it means to front line staff
What it means to front line staff? ….

Organisational Goals Priorities

Agency Policies

What my boss really prefers ?

Personal Objectives

War stories … Past failures & successes

Personal comfort level - Skills / expertise

Easier with current systems and processes …

What peers say ..

What I really believe is right thing to do?

Culture of avoiding risk …

what does matrix management really mean
What does matrix management really mean ?
  • For the individual ? .. Career development ?
  • Individual performance management?
  • For planning & accountability?
  • For decision making ?
  • For knowledge management ?
a view
A view ….

Or have a more up to date organisation to deal with the complexity ……

Either simplify the range of domains and geographies ……

OR ..

Management / Leadership skills and behaviours

Planning and management disciplines

Strength Maturity of enabling Processes & Systems

organisational glue
Organisational glue …
  • Motivating “glue”
  • Quality programmes and impact in the field
  • Mission and identity
  • Camaraderie with like-minded, high calibre, loyal staff
  • Part of international community / civil society
  • Enabling “glue”
  • Programme design standards, guidelines and methodology
  • Monitoring & Evaluation (processes, systems and expertise)
  • Financial processes and systems
  • HR processes and systems
  • Talent management
  • Knowledge management tools, processes and systems
  • Business planning and performance management
what are we really after in simple terms
What are “we” really after .. In simple terms ?
  • … Do best programmes we know how, everywhere, all of the time

… continuously sharing best thinking, learning and stretching

  • … Resources and investment chanelled to where there is most chance of biggest impact

… a clear agenda for all to follow, focus,

.. Joined up decision making processes and clear criteria

  • … Stimulating, motivating, high performance environment

… opportunity for career development and stretch for all capable staff

  • … Processes and systems, fit for purpose, affordable
  • … Good partner for outside organisations ( consistent, professional, focused)
greater than the sum of the parts3
Greater than the “Sum of the parts”?
  • Getting in Shape? … How to make a large international NGO be more than the sum of the parts?
  • Good at what? .. The Core Competences of an international NGO: What are they? What do they need to be?
  • Evolving structuresof international NGOs … is there a right answer?
  • Reinventing the international NGO through new technology possibilities (ICT4D)
  • Strategic planning for large international development and relief agencies: Reflections and Perspectives
  • Integrated planning, performance and accountability for large international NGOs (Draft)
  • What does all this mean?
greater than the sum of the parts4
Greater than the “Sum of the parts”?
  • Getting in Shape? … How to make a large international NGO be more than the sum of the parts?
  • Good at what? .. The Core Competences of an international NGO: What are they? What do they need to be?
  • Evolving structuresof international NGOs … is there a right answer?
  • Reinventing the international NGO through new technology possibilities (ICT4D)
  • Strategic planning for large international development and relief agencies: Reflections and Perspectives
  • Integrated planning, performance and accountability for large international NGOs (Draft)
  • What does all this mean?
slide67

Building a Better International NGO“Greater than the Sum of the parts”Chapter 4: Reinventing international NGOs through new technological possibilities?

slide68
?

Glass half full ..

Glass half empty ..

chapter 4 ict for development
Chapter 4: ICT for Development
  • A wave of tremendous opportunity
  • Five key challenges for iNGOs
  • Making opportunities count
  • Disruptive technologies
  • Structure variants:
          • Characteristics
          • Pros and cons
exhibit 4 1 penetration of mobile cellular and internet
Exhibit 4.1 - Penetration of mobile cellular and internet

Mobile cellular subscriptions by level of development, 1998 - 2009

Internet users by level of development, 1998 - 2009

Note: * Estimates.

Source: ITU World Telecommunication/ ICT Indicators database

Source: UN International Telecommunication Union (ITU); ‘Measuring the Information Society Report’ 2010, 23rd February 2010

five challenges
Five challenges

….

  • So far, ad-hoc, and small scale
  • Not equipped internally: knowledge and expertise
  • Momentum of current structures, staffing, ways of working
  • Challenge in planning and financing investments in use of ICT
  • ICT  assumptions re role/legitimacy of iNGOs
greater than the sum of the parts5
Greater than the “Sum of the parts”?
  • Getting in Shape? … How to make a large international NGO be more than the sum of the parts?
  • Good at what? .. The Core Competences of an international NGO: What are they? What do they need to be?
  • Evolving structuresof international NGOs … is there a right answer?
  • Reinventing the international NGO through new technology possibilities (ICT4D)
  • Strategic planning for large international development and relief agencies: Reflections and Perspectives
  • Integrated planning, performance and accountability for large international NGOs (Draft)
  • What does all this mean?
slide74

Building a Better International NGO“Greater than the Sum of the parts”Chapter 5: Strategic Planning for international NGOs: reflections and perspectives

chapter 5 strategic planning
Chapter 5: Strategic Planning
  • Important considerations / differences
  • Connecting with ongoing planning and management
  • Success criteria (12)
  • Illustrative approach & project structure
  • Variations and permutations
  • Frequently asked questions
slide76

Strategic reviews and the ongoing planning framework

Components of ongoing planning framework

Strategic review

(One-off exercise)

Vision

Mission

Values

  • Internal assessment
    • Successes
    • Challenges
  • External assessment
    • Trends
    • Challenges
    • Opportunities
  • Big strategic questions
    • Choices
    • Decisions
  • Strategic directions/priorities
  • Review/refine goals
  • Refine objectives

External-oriented goals and target groups

Target groups

Goal 1

Goal 2

Objectives; External and Internal; (Balanced Scorecard/Results) Framework

Objective 1

Measures and Targets

Objective 2

Measures and Targets

Objective 3

Measures and Targets

Objective 4

Measures and Targets

Ongoing planning, management, and accountability process

Regional Plans

Sector Plans

Functional Plans

Regi

Country Plans

Gender Plans

HR Plans

Count

Strategic Initiatives

Financial planning / Budget cycle

greater than the sum of the parts6
Greater than the “Sum of the parts”?
  • Getting in Shape? … How to make a large international NGO be more than the sum of the parts?
  • Good at what? .. The Core Competences of an international NGO: What are they? What do they need to be?
  • Evolving structuresof international NGOs … is there a right answer?
  • Reinventing the international NGO through new technology possibilities (ICT4D)
  • Strategic planning for large international development and relief agencies: Reflections and Perspectives
  • Integrated planning, performance and accountability for large international NGOs (Draft)
  • What does all this mean?
slide78

Building a Better International NGO“Greater than the Sum of the parts”Chapter 6: Integrated Planning and Accountability for international NGOs

joining the dots integrated planning performance accountability
Joining the dots: Integrated planning performance & accountability

Strategic Goals

Integrated Planning, Performance and Accountability

Individual performance management

Business and financial planning

integrated planning performance and accountability is part of an integrated organisational system
Integrated planning, performance and accountability is part of an integrated organisational system

Integrated planning and accountability framework

  • Context
  • Strategic Plans/Goals
  • Organisation Model
  • Leadership Styles
  • Enablers
  • Individual Performance Management & HR
  • Business and financial planning
  • Information/data processes & systems

Integrated planning, performance and accountability

Operations

exhibit 6 8 common implementation challenges
Exhibit 6.8 - Common implementation challenges

Lack of consistent, international approach and process (National & International staff)

Strategic Plan not translated to tangible goals and metrics

Integrated Planning and Accountability

  • Enablers
  • Individual Performance Management
  • Business & Financial planning
  • Information & Systems
  • Context
  • Strategic Goals & Priorities
  • Organization Model / Peculiarities
  • Leadership Culture & Styles

Organisation model no longer equipped to deal with breath, scale and complexity

Little serious focus on talent management

Balanced Scorecards

Fragmented planning and budgeting processes across the agency

Roles

Mindset of “dual citizenship” not embraced

Processes

Guideline Behaviours

Line of sight / command and control style of leadership

Financial budgeting not really connected to strategic planning

Operations

Fragmented financial and HR systems

Variability in terms of professional, positive coaching leadership style

Leaders desire to maintain flexibility at the helm

Misalignment on what a “good program” looks like

Fragmented IT landscape

planning performance management and accountability what does it really mean
Planning, performance management and accountability …… What does it really mean?
  • A set of consistent, cascading scorecards for all parts of agency
  • Clear processes for planning, target setting and monitoring
  • Clearly defined roles
  • Clear guidelines around behaviours around the planning and accountability process

… All grounded in strategy & context

… And tied in to key enabling processes and systems

greater than the sum of the parts7
Greater than the “Sum of the parts”?
  • Getting in Shape? … How to make a large international NGO be more than the sum of the parts?
  • Good at what? .. The Core Competences of an international NGO: What are they? What do they need to be?
  • Evolving structuresof international NGOs … is there a right answer?
  • Reinventing the international NGO through new technology possibilities (ICT4D)
  • Strategic planning for large international development and relief agencies: Reflections and Perspectives
  • Integrated planning, performance and accountability for large international NGOs (Draft)
  • What does all this mean?
slide84

Building a Better International NGO“Greater than the Sum of the parts”Chapter 7: What does all this mean?

exhibit 6 7 interrelated dimensions of progress1
Exhibit 6.7 – Interrelated dimensions of progress

Governance Boards, & Decision Making

Donor pressures, preferences

Org Model/ Structure

Leadership style, behaviour, capacity

Global processes and systems

Integrated planning & accountability

“Theory of Change”

sequencing change
Sequencing change …

International Structure

Management / Leadership skills and behaviours

Planning and management disciplines

Strength Maturity of enabling Processes & Systems

Scale, quality and sophistication of programmes

External partner / Stakeholders expectations

exhibit 3 5 changing emphasis executive management leadership
Exhibit 3.5 - Changing emphasis; executive management & leadership

Future

Setting Direction

  • Direction setting / strategizing
  • Responding to major external trends / discontinuities
  • Planning and managing future organisational performance
  • Establishing joint ventures, alliances and partnerships
  • Communication, keeping organisation aligned, in sight of big picture
  • Motivating, encouraging, coaching
  • Compliance / adherence to policy, standards and guidelines
  • External stakeholder engagement (donors, government)
  • Dealing with new/unexpected micro events
  • Decision control, keeping on top of day to day operations

More

More

More

More

More

More

Less

More

Much Less

Much Less

Building

Supporting

Doing

(Day to Day)

leadership behaviours and focus
Leadership behaviours and focus

How do you see the emphasis of leadership needing to change for agency over the next 5+ years ?

…. Culture eats strategy for breakfast !!

… People care what you know when they know that you care !!

…. If want to go quickly, walk alone; if you want to go far, walk together!!

leading change topics
Leading change - topics
  • Articulating case for change and what the shift means in practical terms..
  • Lessons / success factors from previous change programs
  • Front line considerations/ testing / refinement
  • The agency context / style (social styles)
  • Leadership behaviours ? Change in emphasis?
  • Pace of change/Sequencing change ..
          • {Plan Plan – Change – Fix /Backfill}
  • Risks and responses
  • Communications (Internal & External)
  • Accountability framework
  • Change mechanics
much good news in development landscape
Much good news in development landscape
  • Growth & Opportunity in sub-saharian Africa
        • Growth in Sub-saharian Africa 6 to 7% over past decade + (c.f. <2% developed world) XX
        • Not just resources ( 3 fastest growing countries in Africa ( Rwanda, Uganda, Mozambique) XX
        • Young and growing population, desperate for everything, emerging middle class
        • Governance far from perfect but step by step …..
        • Resource rich, and still broadly unexplored from an oil and mineral perspective
        • Africa is less been seen as a convenient practice ground between socialism and capitalism as it was for several decades; or a frontier in the struggle between Christianity and islam …
        • Appreciation gradually that interconnected success at global level – suppliers, workforce, customers
  • Governance & Democracy is gradually gradually
        • Frequency of quasi normal elections
        • Gradually strengthening institutions
        • Corruption - Hullabulloo re the missing millions in Uganda …. John Marcel - Our turn to eat; Kibaki … Crowding out corruption through strong institutions and norms
  • New venues / new opportunities
        • Private sector interest in developing world (investment, jobs, growth)
        • Internet and new technology (# of mobile phones in Africa c.f. bank accounts) X
          • Opportunity to leapfrog due to necessity
        • Even poor countries have lot of offer to global economy
        • Enterprise & trade within Africa ( EU 60%; US 40%; Africa 11%) .. Traidlinks
  • Serious attempts to understand how change happens at a fundamental level
        • Less of poverty and benefiiciaries; to understand complex social, political and economic sub systems and working out how to intervene;
        • or better still get out of the way of progress through EU regressive protective policies around agriculture and fishing
        • Or in emergency – hand out cash instead of dumping food …. Took a long time to appreciate that famine often not by shortage of food but of getting it to the places it was needed
but all is not rosy3
.. But all is not rosy ..
  • Very delicate balance (Snakes and Ladders)
        • Countries slipping back as well as moving forward – need most support on transition
        • South Africa – growth predicted at less than 2% when quadriple that required to make progress
        • Running to stand still – Uganda growing at 6% but population even faster so standing still
        • Enormous inequality where there is growth – South Africa, Brazil, China, India – Highly unstable
  • Geo political tensions and challenges are higher than ever
        • Libya, Iraq, Central Africa Republic; Al Shabab and Kenya and Uganda; Sekaku islands – no fly zone in South China Sea
        • In developing world Stability to Stability is a high risk journey – Inequality for rapidly growing countries
        • Much of new challenges cyber policing or carbon emissions demand collective responsibility at a global level (Global carbon tax)
        • Know that shift in economic and political power (Economic/moral/political leadership)
          • US peaked as % of Global GDP in 1985 (33%); China then 5%; Now 19% and 15% respectively
        • Private sector means too often big corporates – good but only pat of game
        • Different components ( Government, Infrastructure, capital, mindset of individuals/local businesses)
  • Journey form stability to stability is long and troublesome
        • Inequality & injustice
        • Leadership, institutions, corruption
  • Poverty landscape is more complex
        • Huge pockets of poverty in middle income countries (Nigeria, India, South Africa ..)
        • Lexington Market v Kibera estate
  • Oil & Mineral resources has the opportunity to wreck the African continent
        • Nigeria – industries getting wiped out by petro dollars ( resentment / jobs / instability
        • Good governance, strong leadership, strong institutions, long term planning discipline … No chance
        • Leave the resources where they are fro another years – or do a direct swap between pieces and physical infrastructure (China)
ingos and in respect to ingos
.. INGOs And in respect to Ingos ?
  • INGOs are not universally popular or welcomed by host government / institutions
        • Build up of resentment (Dr Frank Segwawa- UIA)
        • Aid breaking the contract between a government and its people - get in the way ( of course may help in short term)
        • How to become positive (more welcomed) agents of change!
        • Too many diverse voices and please to have much impact on policy ..
  • Innovation not breathtaking!
        • Culture of risk avoidance / fear of failure
        • Organisational inetria! ( disruptive technologies)
        • Nor equipped to join the dots and pursue scale approaches
        • Woburn ( Duchess course ) .. Those pine trees
        • So many talented people worn down and playing safe ..
  • Results agenda! – but still too much of measuring detailed nonsense
        • Donors, Governments looking for simple answer; linear; simplistic - This will result in that! Nonsense: INGOs have a duty of honesty/education - Instead of applying the best brains to understand as best we can the social, political and economic systems and how whatever help or intervention can help ( at least do no harm)
        • Too much thinking of measurement – not enough time thinking, learning, doing
  • Missing the “green space” ,,
        • Development efforts too shy of enterprise, trade and profit; cultivating and nourishing enterprise to develop is not being addressed
        • Private sector means too often big corporates – good but only pat of game
        • Different components ( Government, Infrastructure, capital, mindset of individuals/local businesses)
  • Efforts by the iNGOS to get act together taking too long
        • within their own organisations and across the sector is taking too long!
underneath the flywheel looking to drive change along many dimensions
Underneath the flywheel, looking to drive change along many dimensions ..

Supporting trade and enterprise in Africa to Accelerate pro-poor growth

Capital access

Political will

Enterprise

Capacity

National Strategies & Plans

Public funding

Market access

Financial strength

Institutional capacity

Smart Aid

Leverage

Business practices

Standards & Reliability

Policies/Regulation & Incentives

Resources to communities

Influencers

Public/Community Will

Partnerships

Leadership/ Entrepreneurship

Knowledge & Skills

Education

Private investment

Awareness

Attitudes, perceptions and beliefs

Infrastructure

Private Sector Participation

Individual Capacity

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Build the capacity of existing, and emerging Cooperatives, farmers groups and commercial farmers in the Albertine (A1)

Supporting trade and enterprise in Africa to Accelerate pro-poor growth

14

Political will

Capital access

Enterprise

Capacity

National Strategies & Plans

Public funding

4

1

Market access

Financial strength

Smart Aid

Institutional capacity

9

3

2

Business practices

Standards & Reliability

Leverage

Resources to communities

Policies/Regulation & Incentives

Influencers

10

Public/Community Will

Partnerships

7

8

Leadership/ Entrepreneurship

Knowledge & Skills

11

12

Education

Private investment

5

6

Awareness

Attitudes, perceptions and beliefs

13

Infrastructure

Individual Capacity

Private Sector Participation

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