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## PowerPoint Slideshow about ' Pipelining' - kaleb

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Pipelining

- Applied to sequential steps to speed up operation
Example:

Compute Ri = AiBi + Ci for i=1, 2, … n

Perform the multiplication first

Perform the addition next

C4

A4

B4

A2B2+C2

A4B4

A3B3

A2B2

A1B1

C2

C3

A3B3+C3

B2

B1

A3

A2

A1

A1B1+C1

A4B4+C4

C1

Pipelined ExecutionClock

Input A

Input B

Input C

R1

A1

A2

A3

A4

R2

B1

B2

B3

B4

R3

A1B1

A2B2

A3B3

A4B4

R4

C1

C2

C3

C4

Mult.

Adder

Pipelining

- Non Pipelined Process

Execute

Fetch Instr.

Get Operands

Store Result

Instr.1

Instr.1

Instr.1

Instr.1

ƮALU

ƮMem

ƮMem

ƮReg

Register File

PC

Instr.Mem.

ALU

Data Mem.

Pipelining

- Non Pipelined Process

Execute

Fetch Instr.

Get Operands

Store Result

Instr.2

Instr.2

Instr.2

Instr.2

ƮALU

ƮMem

ƮMem

ƮReg

Register File

PC

Instr.Mem.

ALU

Data Mem.

Pipelining

- Non Pipelined Process
- Clock Period =
- Clocks per Instruction =

ƮALU

ƮMem

ƮMem

ƮReg

Register File

PC

Instr.Mem.

ALU

Data Mem.

Pipelining

- Pipelined Process

Execute

Fetch Instr.

Get Operands

Store Result

Instr.2

Instr.1

Instr.5

Instr.3

Instr.4

Instr.2

Instr.1

Instr.2

Instr.4

Instr.3

Instr.3

Instr.2

Instr.1

Instr.1

ƮALU

ƮMem

ƮMem

ƮReg

IR

Register File

Result

PC

Instr.Mem.

ALU

Data Mem.

X

Y

Pipelining

- Pipelined Process
- Clock Period =
- Clocks per Instruction =

ƮALU

ƮMem

ƮMem

ƮReg

IR

Register File

Result

PC

Instr.Mem.

ALU

Data Mem.

X

Y

Pipelining Hazards

- Structural Hazards
Hardware can’t support instruction combination at a certain time.

Example:

IR

Register File

Result

PC

Instr.Mem.

ALU

Data Mem.

X

Y

Pipelining Hazards

- Data Hazards
One instruction has to wait for another to complete.

Example:

IR

Register File

Result

PC

Instr.Mem.

ALU

Data Mem.

X

Y

Pipelining Hazards

- Control Hazards
Decision depends on the result of unfinished instruction.

Example:

IR

Register File

Result

PC

Instr.Mem.

ALU

Data Mem.

X

Y

Pipelining

The End

Homework

- Mano

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