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Foundation Engineering. Practical Portion. Experiment No. 1. Classification of Soil according to USC and AASHTO Classification System. Designation. AASHTO M 145-91(2000) ASTM D 2487-00. Scope Tests Required for the Classification Sieve Analysis Atterberg Limit test Liquid Limit Test

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Foundation Engineering

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Foundation Engineering

Practical Portion


Experiment No. 1

Classification of Soil according to USC and AASHTO Classification System.

ENGR. FAIZAN TAHIR


Designation

  • AASHTO M 145-91(2000)

  • ASTM D 2487-00

ENGR. FAIZAN TAHIR


  • Scope

  • Tests Required for the Classification

    • Sieve Analysis

    • Atterberg Limit test

      • Liquid Limit Test

      • Plastic Limit Test

ENGR. FAIZAN TAHIR


Sieve Analysis

The sieves normally required are as follows

ENGR. FAIZAN TAHIR


Procedure

  • Take a sample about 500-g. of soil, when soil contain larger particles (gravels), bigger soil sample will be required.

  • Carefully check all the sieves and remove any particles sticking to the sieve mesh.

  • Sieves are arranged in the descending order of their sizes with a pan at bottom.

  • The sieving operation shall be conducted by lateral and vertical motion of the sieves so as to keep the sample moving continuously over the sieve surface.

  • The soil particles shall not be turned or manipulated through the sieves by hand.

  • Sieving shall be continued until not more than 1-percent by mass of the residue passes any sieve during 60-seconds.

  • Remove the sieves from the sieve shaker and carefully weigh the soil retained on each sieve.

  • Remove the particles sticking to the sieve mesh and should be included to the weight retained.

  • Tabulate the data and calculate the percentage passing as shown in the following table.

ENGR. FAIZAN TAHIR


Percentage passing

ENGR. FAIZAN TAHIR


Liquid Limit Test

APPARATUS:

1. Knife, 2. Grooving tool, 3. Balance, 4. Liquid limit apparatus, 5. Drying oven, 6. Containers for moisture content determination

Cassagrande Apparatus Grooving tools

ENGR. FAIZAN TAHIR


Steps:

  • 1. Sample as taken from the field 2. Sample after passing sieve No. 40

  • (About 100-g sample passing #40 Sieve)

ENGR. FAIZAN TAHIR


12.7mm

  • 3.. Making the paste 4. Paste in the Cassagrande cup

ENGR. FAIZAN TAHIR

5. Groove in the paste 6. Groove closed for a length of 12.7-mm.


Calculations:

ENGR. FAIZAN TAHIR


Graph:

ENGR. FAIZAN TAHIR


Plastic Limit Test

Steps:

  • Take abut 20-g of sample passing # 40 sieve, make a paste

  • Take 8-g of sample and deform it into ellipsoidal shaped mass.

  • Now roll the mass into a thread of uniform diameter throughout its length

    Ellipsoidal shape sample Thread rolling

ENGR. FAIZAN TAHIR


  • When the diameter of the thread becomes less than 3-mm. break the thread, and repeat last step again.

  • Continue performing step-3 until thread crumbles without reaching the Diameter of 3-mm.

  • Plasticity Index = Liquid Limit – Plastic Limit

ENGR. FAIZAN TAHIR


Calculations:

ENGR. FAIZAN TAHIR


AASHTO SOIL CLASSIFICATION TABLE

Table

ENGR. FAIZAN TAHIR


UNIFIED SOIL CLASSIFICATION TABLE

Table

ENGR. FAIZAN TAHIR


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