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Foundation Engineering. Practical Portion. Experiment No. 1. Classification of Soil according to USC and AASHTO Classification System. Designation. AASHTO M 145-91(2000) ASTM D 2487-00. Scope Tests Required for the Classification Sieve Analysis Atterberg Limit test Liquid Limit Test

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Foundation Engineering

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Foundation engineering

Foundation Engineering

Practical Portion


Experiment no 1

Experiment No. 1

Classification of Soil according to USC and AASHTO Classification System.

ENGR. FAIZAN TAHIR


Designation

Designation

  • AASHTO M 145-91(2000)

  • ASTM D 2487-00

ENGR. FAIZAN TAHIR


Foundation engineering

  • Scope

  • Tests Required for the Classification

    • Sieve Analysis

    • Atterberg Limit test

      • Liquid Limit Test

      • Plastic Limit Test

ENGR. FAIZAN TAHIR


Sieve analysis

Sieve Analysis

The sieves normally required are as follows

ENGR. FAIZAN TAHIR


Procedure

Procedure

  • Take a sample about 500-g. of soil, when soil contain larger particles (gravels), bigger soil sample will be required.

  • Carefully check all the sieves and remove any particles sticking to the sieve mesh.

  • Sieves are arranged in the descending order of their sizes with a pan at bottom.

  • The sieving operation shall be conducted by lateral and vertical motion of the sieves so as to keep the sample moving continuously over the sieve surface.

  • The soil particles shall not be turned or manipulated through the sieves by hand.

  • Sieving shall be continued until not more than 1-percent by mass of the residue passes any sieve during 60-seconds.

  • Remove the sieves from the sieve shaker and carefully weigh the soil retained on each sieve.

  • Remove the particles sticking to the sieve mesh and should be included to the weight retained.

  • Tabulate the data and calculate the percentage passing as shown in the following table.

ENGR. FAIZAN TAHIR


Foundation engineering

Percentage passing

ENGR. FAIZAN TAHIR


Liquid limit test

Liquid Limit Test

APPARATUS:

1. Knife, 2. Grooving tool, 3. Balance, 4. Liquid limit apparatus, 5. Drying oven, 6. Containers for moisture content determination

Cassagrande Apparatus Grooving tools

ENGR. FAIZAN TAHIR


Steps

Steps:

  • 1. Sample as taken from the field 2. Sample after passing sieve No. 40

  • (About 100-g sample passing #40 Sieve)

ENGR. FAIZAN TAHIR


Foundation engineering

12.7mm

  • 3.. Making the paste 4. Paste in the Cassagrande cup

ENGR. FAIZAN TAHIR

5. Groove in the paste 6. Groove closed for a length of 12.7-mm.


Calculations

Calculations:

ENGR. FAIZAN TAHIR


Graph

Graph:

ENGR. FAIZAN TAHIR


Plastic limit test

Plastic Limit Test

Steps:

  • Take abut 20-g of sample passing # 40 sieve, make a paste

  • Take 8-g of sample and deform it into ellipsoidal shaped mass.

  • Now roll the mass into a thread of uniform diameter throughout its length

    Ellipsoidal shape sample Thread rolling

ENGR. FAIZAN TAHIR


Foundation engineering

  • When the diameter of the thread becomes less than 3-mm. break the thread, and repeat last step again.

  • Continue performing step-3 until thread crumbles without reaching the Diameter of 3-mm.

  • Plasticity Index = Liquid Limit – Plastic Limit

ENGR. FAIZAN TAHIR


Calculations1

Calculations:

ENGR. FAIZAN TAHIR


Aashto soil classification table

AASHTO SOIL CLASSIFICATION TABLE

Table

ENGR. FAIZAN TAHIR


Unified soil classification table

UNIFIED SOIL CLASSIFICATION TABLE

Table

ENGR. FAIZAN TAHIR


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