Blended learning in a faculty learning community
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Blended Learning in a Faculty Learning Community. Educause 2005 Conference. Norm Vaughan, PhD & D. Randy Garrison, PhD Learning Commons, University of Calgary [email protected] Faculty development issues related to educational technology integration

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Blended Learning in a Faculty Learning Community

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Blended learning in a faculty learning community

Blended Learning in a Faculty Learning Community

Educause 2005 Conference

Norm Vaughan, PhD & D. Randy Garrison, PhD

Learning Commons, University of Calgary

[email protected]


Overview

Faculty development issues related to educational technology integration

Faculty learning community on blended learning

Lessons learned

Overview


Reflecting on faculty development

Reflecting on Faculty Development

Examples

Processes

Faculty DevelopmentPrograms

Issues

Advantages


Faculty development issues

Program examples?

Program issues?

Faculty Development Issues


Issues with previous faculty development initiatives related to educational technology

One off workshops – faculty come to a workshop – get excited about using educational technology but then go back to their offices and do not have the time to put their new ideas into practice

Educational technology project development work (semester or academic year) - lack of opportunity for faculty to share their ideas and concerns with others who are also going through the same development process

Educational technology institutes – positive in a sense that there is time to clearly link theory to practice (good mix of discussion and hands-on sessions), sense of community and sharing among participants – disadvantage, the lack of follow up connections often prevents extensive implementation of the projects

Issues with previous faculty development initiatives related to educational technology


Faculty learning community flc

A FLC consists of “a cross-disciplinary group of 5 or more faculty members (8 to 12 is the recommended size) engaging in an active, collaborative, yearlong program with a curriculum about enhancing teaching and learning and with frequent seminars and activities that provide learning, development, interdisciplinarity, the scholarship of teaching and learning, and community building”.

(Cox, 2003, p.1)

Faculty Learning Community (FLC)


Challenges in higher education

Lack of time to participate in face-to-face faculty development activities

Perceived uptake of educational technology by faculty…..BUT…..concerns about workload: are faculty “layering” the technology on top of everything they’ve always done and continue to do?

Challenges in Higher Education


Blended learning

The thoughtful integration of face-to-face classroom (spontaneous verbal discourse) and Internet based (reflective text-based discourse) learning opportunities

An opportunity to enhance the campus experience and extend learning through the use of Internet information and communication

Traditional classroom contact hours are restructured to accommodate the properties of online learning and appropriate activities

Blended Learning


Blended learning1

80% of all American higher education institutions and 93% of doctoral institutions offer hybrid or blended learning courses (Arabasz & Baker, 2003)

85% of faculty surveyed in British higher education institutions believe learning technologies are improving access to education and 94% think that a mix of online and classroom-based teaching is more effective than classroom teaching alone (Marquis, 2004)

Blended Learning


Faculty learning community on blended learning

The Three “P” Drivers

Purpose– The successful redesign and implementation of undergraduate credit courses in a blended learning format

Process – series of biweekly face-to-face sessions (discussion and computer lab) combined with facilitated online activities between sessions

Product – intended outcome of the community is that all members will have a fully functional Blackboard course site, combined with the necessary teaching and educational technology skills and experience, to support a blended mode of course delivery

Funding: Provincial Grant (Access Fund)

Faculty Learning Community on Blended Learning


Flc on blended learning program outcomes

FLC on Blended Learning Program Outcomes

Curriculum

Design

Teaching

Strategies

Teaching excellence

and innovation

in support of

student learning

Educational

Technology

Integration


Flc on blended learning program outcomes1

Curriculum Design

A curriculum redesign plan of an existing credit undergraduate course for blended learning. This plan involves the:

Formulation of a blended course vision and learning outcomes

Development of a course syllabus

Creation of assignments based on the identified learning outcomes

FLC on Blended Learning – Program Outcomes


Flc on blended learning program outcomes2

Teaching Strategies

The acquisition of effective face-to-face and online teaching skills & strategies such as:

Facilitating online discussions

Stimulating online communication

Managing group work

Assessing online work

Directing students to appropriate support personal and/or resource documentation for time management and study skills

FLC on Blended Learning – Program Outcomes


Flc on blended learning program outcomes3

Educational Technology Integration

The acquisition of educational technology skills

such as:

Managing a Blackboard course web site

Trouble shooting basic student technology issues

FLC on Blended Learning – Program Outcomes


Fall semester sessions

Focus on Course Redesign

Identifying key learning outcomes

Designing integrated face-to-face and online learning activities

Developing a course assessment strategy

Creating a learning centered course syllabus and redesign plan

Developing a course module prototype

Leveraging the use of digital learning object repositories

Faculty outcomes – completed course redesign plan, course syllabus (objectives, assignments, assessment plan, grading criteria) and a functional Blackboard shell with one prototype module

Fall Semester - Sessions


Winter semester sessions

Focus on Course Development & Teaching Strategies

Developing your own digital learning objects

Advanced Blackboard Tools

Facilitating online learning

Integrating face-to-face and online activities

Learner support strategies

Piloting and course evaluation strategies

Faculty outcomes- a redesigned course, a Blackboard web site, and the necessary teaching & educational technology strategies and skills to create a successful blended learning environment for their students

Winter Semester - Sessions


Community of inquiry framework

Community of Inquiry Framework

Social Presence

The ability of participants

in a community of inquiry

to project themselves

socially and emotionally

as ‘real’ people

(i.e., their full personality),

through the medium of

communication being

used.

Cognitive Presence

The extent to which

learners are able to

construct and confirm

meaning through

sustained reflection

and discourse in a

critical community

of inquiry.

Teaching Presence

The design, facilitation and direction of cognitive and social processes for the purpose

of realizing personally meaningful and educationally worthwhile learning outcomes.

Garrison, Anderson and Archer (2000)


Inquiry process within a blended flc

Inquiry Process within a Blended FLC


Supporting a blended community of inquiry

How can digital technologies be used to support an inquiry process within a blended faculty development context?

Think

Pair

Share

Supporting a blended community of inquiry


Using digital technologies to support a blended inquiry cycle

Ideas:

Using digital technologies to support a blended inquiry cycle


Using digital technologies to support a blended inquiry cycle1

Before face-to-face (FTF) session

During FTF session

After FTF session

Preparing for the next FTF session

Using digital technologies to support a blended inquiry cycle


Blended flc model

Blended FLC Model


Stage one before a face to face ftf session

Stage One: Before a Face-to-Face (FTF) Session


Pre readings

Pre-readings


Self assessment quizzes knowledge probes

Self-assessment quizzes(knowledge probes)


Examples of digital tools to support inquiry based learning

Before FTF Session

Communication

Announcements section of your course web site

Group email feature

Posting or linking to pre-reading assignments

U of C Library - Electronic Indexes and Abstracts http://www.ucalgary.ca/library/gateway/indabs.html

Digital learning objects

Learning Object Repositorieshttp://www.mtroyal.ab.ca/adc/adc_learningobjects.htm

Self assessment quizzes

Test manager tools

Anonymous surveys

Survey manager tools

Examples of digital tools to support inquiry-based learning


Stage two during a ftf session

Stage Two: During a FTF Session


Quiz survey feedback

Quiz & survey feedback

Display quiz & survey results


Digital learning objects resources

Digital learning objects/resources


Displaying assignments faculty work

Displaying assignments/faculty work


Examples of digital tools to support inquiry based learning1

During FTF Session

Displaying quiz or survey results

Online grade book results (for anonymous surveys)

Overheads of information printed out from the Blackboard online grade book

Displaying digital learning objects and resources

Objects uploaded to the course web site and links to external learning object and resource sites (e.g. animations, video clips, PowerPoint presentations)

CAREO – www.careo.org

Displaying assignments and faculty work

Assignment folders within course site which contain the assignment handout, tutorial, resources and examples of past faculty work

Examples of digital tools to support inquiry-based learning


Stage three between the ftf sessions

Stage Three: Between the FTF Sessions


Anonymous end of session survey

Anonymous end of session survey


Online discussion forums

Online discussion forums


Project support and development

Project support and development


Links to projects

Links to projects


Examples of digital tools to support inquiry based learning2

After FTF Session

Anonymous feedback surveys

Communication

Announcements section of course site for faculty “to do” list

Group email feature for the faculty “to do” list

Individual email feature for individual faculty questions or clarification (try to put common questions into a Frequently Asked Questions discussion forum)

Online discussion forums to facilitate faculty moderated discussions

Virtual classroom tools for synchronous sharing sessions among faculty-student groups

Individual and Group Project Work

Assignment folders within course site which contains the assignment handout, tutorial, resources and examples of past faculty work

Groups work area within learning management systems which contain communication tools (email, discussion forum, virtual chat) and a digital drop box for sharing documents

Opportunities for further exploration

External links section within Blackboard for enrichment resources

Examples of digital tools to support inquiry-based learning


Stage four next ftf session

Stage Four: Next FTF Session


Anonymous survey feedback

Anonymous survey feedback


Archive survey feedback

Archive survey feedback


Lessons learned

Focus of inquiry

Triggering events

Exploration

Integration

Resolution/application

Leadership

Lessons Learned


Focus of inquiry

Connection between one’s teaching practice and student learning

Potential for a “transformational shift” in approaches to teaching – from disseminating information to creating learning environments where students construct their own knowledge

Role of technology – shift from the packaging and distribution of information (content) to being used as a “tool set” to enable students to collaboratively construct their own knowledge

Focus of Inquiry


Triggering event

Redesign of an existing course – making one’s implicit assumptions about a course explicit

Triggering of new ideas and perspectives about teaching and learning

Support – community members realize they are not alone in experiencing a particular issue or concern (importance of participation and shared understanding which leads to a sense of “trust and risk taking” within the group)

Importance of community and face-to-face (physical) presence in this stage

Triggering Event


Exploration

Importance of:

experiential learning opportunities – being immersed in a blended learning environment as a student

sharing experience with other teachers and students – different discipline perspectives

sharing of stories (power of narrative)

online discussion forum to capture the sharing

faculty mentors – people with previous FLC experience

Exploration


Integration

Importance of:

a project focus – forces one to make tentative course redesign decisions (reification)

faculty regularly presenting project artifacts and/or issues to the community in order to get feedback from other members and to help confirm their own understanding

piloting portions of the projects with the student members of the community

Integration


Resolution application

Importance of:

intentionally engaging in a scholarship of teaching and learning process

getting ethics approval (early) to formally evaluate the course redesign project

collecting quantitative and qualitative data regarding student learning outcomes and perceived satisfaction related to the redesign

dissemination of results beyond the community – departmental, institutional and external presentations and publications

Resolution/Application


Leadership

Outside and inside the community

essential ingredient due to the lack of formal accountability structure (participation is often on a volunteer basis)

Outside the community (but within the organization)

sponsorship and legitimacy is vital (also important for removing barriers and hierarchy)

Inside the community

nurturing is the key (ecology of leadership)

need to develop a core group so that the nurturing role does not rest with just one person

people taking on different responsibilities and roles within the community

sign of maturity when others in the community are willing to take on the nurturing role (shared responsibility)

Leadership


Leadership1

Key Dimensions of a Community of Practice (Wenger, 2005)

Leadership

Sponsorship

Domain

Participation

Nurturing

Community

Practice

Support


Reflections

What is your “key” take-away from this session?

What doesn’t make sense (muddiest point)?

Reflections


Questions comments discussion

Questions, Comments, Discussion

PowerPoint Slides Available at:

http://www.ucalgary.ca/~nvaughan/norm/presentations.htm


Resources

Arabasz, P., & Baker, M. B. (2003). Evolving campus support models for e-learning courses. Educause Center for Applied Research. http://www.educause.edu/ir/library/pdf/ecar_so/ers/ERS0303/EKF0303.pdf

Cox, M.D. (2003). Faculty Learning Communities: What Are They?. http://www.units.muohio.edu/flc/index.shtml

Garrison, D. R., Anderson, T., Archer, W. & Rourke, L (2004). Communities of Inquiry Web Site. http://communitiesofinquiry.com/

Marquis, C. (2004). WebCT Survey Discovers A Blend of Online Learning and Classroom-Based Teaching Is The Most Effective Form Of Learning Today. WebCT.com. http://www.webct.com/service/ViewContent?contentID=19295938

Novak, Greg (1999). Just-in-Time Teaching.http://webphysics.iupui.edu/jitt/what.html/

Wenger, E. (2005). Communities of Practice Web Site. http://www.ewenger.com/theory/index.htm

Resources


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