Pharmarcology and clinical laboratory test
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Pharmarcology and Clinical Laboratory Test. Dae Chul Jeong, M.D. Department of Pediatrics, Internal Medicine 1 , College of Medicine, The Catholic University of Korea. Pharmacology ( 약리학 ). Pharmacodynamics ( 약동학 ) 약의 생체에 대한 작용 , 작용기전에 대한 연구 Pharmacokinetics ( 약력학 )

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Pharmarcology and Clinical Laboratory Test

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Pharmarcology and Clinical Laboratory Test

Dae Chul Jeong, M.D.

Department of Pediatrics, Internal Medicine1,

College of Medicine, The Catholic University of Korea


Pharmacology (약리학)

  • Pharmacodynamics (약동학)

    • 약의 생체에 대한 작용, 작용기전에 대한 연구

  • Pharmacokinetics (약력학)

    • 약의 체내에서 흡수, 분포, 변화 및 배설과정을 연구하는 학문

  • Chemotherapy (화학요법)

    • 미생물, 기생충, 암세포를 파괴하는 약에 관한 연구

  • Toxicology (독물학)

    • 독물의 기원, 물리화학적 성질, 검출방법 등을 연구하는 학문


약물의 명명

  • Chemical name (화학명)

    • 유기화학에서 사용되는 화학명

      예) alpha-aminobenzylp

  • Generic name (일반명)

    • 약에 관한 규격을 기록한 책에 의료목적으로 사용되는 약물

      예) ampicillin

  • Brand name, trade name (상품명)

    • 약물제조업자가 명명한 이름

      예) amcil, Omnipen etc….


약물과 연관된 용어

  • Therapeutic dose (치료량)

    • 약효를 나타낼 수 있는 용량

  • Toxic dose (중독량)

    • 중독을 나타낼 수 있는 용량

  • Tolerated dose (내량)

    • 중독을 일으키더라도 죽음을 면할 수 있는 최대량

  • Lethal dose (치사량)

    • 사망시킬 수 있는 용량

  • Tolerance (내성)

  • Drug dependence (약물 의존성)

  • Resistance (저항성)


  • Cumulative dose (축적용량)

    • 반감기가 긴 약제 혹은 일부 항암제

      예) digitalis, adriamycin, bleomycin

  • Interaction, combined effect (상호작용)

    두 가지 이상의 약물을 병용 투여하여 서로 상호간에 나타나는 작용

    • 협동작용(synergism), 길항작용 (antagonism)

  • Drug toxicity (약물 독성)

  • Side effect (부작용)

  • Adverse effect (유해효과)

    • 약물의 기대 효과 이외의 다른 효과를 나타내는 현상

  • Receptor (수용체)

    • 약물이 세포에 결합하는 세포부위

  • Affinity (친화력)


약물의 투여(route of administration)

  • Oral administration (p.o = per os)경구 투여

  • Sublingual administration 설하투여

  • Rectal administration 직장투여

  • Parenteral administration 비경구투여

    • Subcutaneous injection (SC)

    • Intradermal injection (ID)

    • Intramuscular injecton (IM)

    • Intravenous injection (IV)

    • Intra-arterial injection

    • Intra-thecal injection (지주막하강주사)

    • Intracavity injection

    • Inhalation (흡입)

    • Topical application (국소적용)


약물의 분류


신경계에 작용하는 약제

  • Autonomic nervous system (자율신경계)

    • Sympathetic nervous system (교감신경계)

      • Sympathomimetics (교감신경 흥분제)

        • epinephrine

      • Sympatholytics (교감신경 차단제)

        • propanolol

    • Parasympathetic nervous system (부교감 신경계)

      • Parasympathomimetics (부교감신경 흥분제)

        • pilocarpine

      • Parasympatholytics (부교감신경 차단제)

        • atropine


중추신경계에 작용하는 약물

  • Stimulants (자극제)

    • caffeine

  • Depressants (억제제)

  • Analgesics (진통제)

    • Narcotics (마약제)

    • Non-narcotics (비마약제)

  • Sedatives and hypnotics (진정제 및 수면제)

    • Phenobarbital

  • Anticonvulsants (항경련제)

    • phenytoin

  • Tranquilizers (신경안정제)

  • Anesthetics(마취제)


심혈관계에 작용하는 약물

  • 심장에 작용하는 약물

    • Catatonic (강심제)

      • Digitalis

    • Antiarrythmic agents (항부정맥제)

      • Propanolol

    • Coronary vasodilators(심장혈관 이완제)

      • Nitroglycerin

  • Antihypertensives (고혈압치료제)

    • Sympathomimetics 혹은 diuretics


위장관계에 사용하는 약제

  • Antiacids (제산제)

  • Emetics (토제, 최토제)

  • Antiemetics (구토약)

  • Cathartics (설사약, 사하제)

  • Antidirrarheal agents (항설사약)

    • 장운동억제제

      • loperamide

    • 수렴제

      • bismuth

    • 흡착제

      • Alumimum silicates


호흡기에 작용하는 약제

  • Bronchodilators (기관지 확장제)

    • Epinephrine, atock

  • Expectorants (가래약) Mucolytics (점액용해제)

    • mucomyst


항생제(antibiotics)

  • Penicillin계열

  • Streptomycin, neomycin, kanamycin

  • Tetracyclines

  • Sulfonamides

  • cephalosporines


항암제 (anticancer drugs)

  • Alkylating agents

    • cyclophosphamide

  • Antimetabolites

    • Methotrexate, 6-mercaptopurine

  • Steroid hormones

    • dexamethasone

  • Antibiotics

  • Plant alkaloids

  • Drug combination


약제 투약에 따른 약자


Clinical Laboratory Test


Biochemistry(생화학)

  • Routine biochemistry

    • Liver function test

    • Renal function test

    • Lipids test

    • Blood sugar test

    • Cardiac test

    • electrolytes

  • Emergency biochemistry

    • Routine biochemistry

    • Ammonia, neonatal bilirubin

  • Drug monitoring

  • Electrophoresis


Tumor markers (종양표지자)

  • -hcG

  • 2-microglobulin

  • Alpha-fetoprotein (-fetoprotein)

  • CA 15-3: breast cancer, ovary cancer, cervix Ca.

  • CA19-9: pancreatic Ca, hepatoma, stomach Ca,

  • CA50: biliay tumor, pancreatic Ca.

  • CA 72-4: ovary cancer, pancreatic Ca.

  • CA125, CA 130: ovary cancer

  • Calcitonin: thyroid cancer

  • CEA(Carcinoembryonic antigen): colon cancer, rectal cancer

  • PSA (prostate specific antigen: prostate cancer


Virus

  • HAV-IgM, HAV-IgG: A 형 간염

  • HBsAg, HBsAb: B 형간염

  • HBe Ag, HBeAb, HBcAb: B 형간염

  • EBV VCA IgM, IgG: EB 바이러스 감염

  • Parbovirus IgM, IgG: Parbovirus 감염

  • TORCH

    • Toxoplasma

    • Others (syphilis)

    • Rubella

    • Cytomegalovirus

    • Herpers simplex virus


혈액응고 검사 및 용혈검사

  • PT (prothrombin time)

  • aPTT (activated partial thromboplastin time)

  • BT (bleeding time)

  • Thrombin time

  • Coombs test

    • Direct

    • Indirect

  • Osmotic fragility test


Special laboratory test

  • Flow cytometry

    • Immune cells

    • Stem cells

  • Molecular laboratory

    • RT-PCR (reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction)

    • RQ-PCR (RT quantitative PCR)

    • Southern blot

    • Northern blot

    • Immunoblot

  • Genetics

    • Chromosome study

    • FISH (Fluorescent in situ hybridazation)


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