Virsuses human immunodeficiency syndrome acquired immunodeficiency syndrome
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Virsuses: Human Immunodeficiency Syndrome & Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome. Outline we may need to save some topic in lecture. Origins of HIV based on scientific evidence HIV viral particle Mechanism of infection Transmission Treatment AIDS Prevention Clinical Detection and Diagnosis.

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Virsuses: Human Immunodeficiency Syndrome & Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome

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Virsuses human immunodeficiency syndrome acquired immunodeficiency syndrome

Virsuses:Human Immunodeficiency Syndrome& Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome


Outline we may need to save some topic in lecture

Outlinewe may need to save some topic in lecture

  • Origins of HIV based on scientific evidence

  • HIV viral particle

  • Mechanism of infection

  • Transmission

  • Treatment

  • AIDS

  • Prevention

  • Clinical Detection and Diagnosis


Virsuses human immunodeficiency syndrome acquired immunodeficiency syndrome

Red capped mangabey monkey

Greater spot nose monkey

SIV cpz almost identical to HIV 1

Humans


Virsuses human immunodeficiency syndrome acquired immunodeficiency syndrome

Pan troglodytes troglodytes

Simian Virus (SIV cpz) almost identical to HIV 1


Sooty mangabey monkey

Sooty mangabey monkey

Simian Virus corresponds to HIV2


Virsuses human immunodeficiency syndrome acquired immunodeficiency syndrome

HIV: Structure and

mechanism of replication


Virsuses human immunodeficiency syndrome acquired immunodeficiency syndrome

HIV


Virsuses human immunodeficiency syndrome acquired immunodeficiency syndrome

HIV-1 PARTICLE


Virsuses human immunodeficiency syndrome acquired immunodeficiency syndrome

The key HIV genes


Mechanism of infection

Mechanism of Infection

Infects Th cell

VIRAL RNA

Integrates into host DNA

“activated”

PROVIRAL DNA

LYTIC STAGE

storage

LYSOGENIC STAGE


Virsuses human immunodeficiency syndrome acquired immunodeficiency syndrome

RETROVIRAL REPLICATION


Hiv animations

HIV animations

http://www.hivinfosource.org/hivis/hivbasics/animations/index.html

http://search.live.com/video/results.aspx?q=HIV+animation&docid=1601834254601#docid=1601834254601

http://search.live.com/video/results.aspx?q=HIV+animation&docid=1601834254601#docid=1669495456158


Virsuses human immunodeficiency syndrome acquired immunodeficiency syndrome

T lymphocyte in green and HIV in red


Hiv and helper t cells

HIV and helper T cells

HIV-1

HOST CELLS:helper T lymphocyte, macrophages


Virsuses human immunodeficiency syndrome acquired immunodeficiency syndrome

LYTIC STAGE


Transmission of hiv

Transmission of HIV


Transmission of hiv1

Transmission of HIV

  • Biological fluids

    • Blood

    • Sexual transmission (Semen)

    • Breast milk

    • Transplant tissues


Non transmitting sources of hiv

Non-transmitting sources of HIV

  • Tears

  • Saliva

  • Mosquito or insects

  • Swimming pool

  • Food handling


Highly active antiretroviral therapy haart cocktail therapy

Highly Active Antiretroviral Therapy (HAART)Cocktail Therapy


Examples of anti retroviral drugs

Examples of anti-retroviral drugs

  • Cocktail Drug Mixtures

    • Protease inhibitors

    • Non-nucleoside RT Inhibitors (NNRTIs)

    • Nuleoside/nucleotide RT inhibitors (NRTIs)

    • * Fusion Inhibitors*Fuzeon

    • Integrase Inhibitors


Fusion inhibitors block

Fusion Inhibitors block

  • Co-receptors on host cell

  • Gp120/gp 41 on viral particle

or


Co receptors

Co-Receptors

Binds naturally occurring chemokines

CCR5 or CXCR4 (fusin)


Prevention

Prevention

  • Condoms

  • Clean needles

  • Treatment of pregnant mother with anti-viral drugs

  • Blood screening

  • Abstinence


Acquired immunodeficiency disease

Acquired Immunodeficiency Disease


Symptoms of aids

Symptoms of AIDS

  • Decrease T cell count

  • Rapid weight loss

  • Recurring fever and dry cough

  • Profound fatigue

  • Swollen lymph glands


Symptoms of aids1

Symptoms of AIDS

  • Persistent diarrhea

  • Unusual blemishes on the tongue, mouth, or throat

  • pneumonia

  • memory loss, depression


Acquired immunodeficiency syndrome opportunistic diseases and cancer

Acquired Immunodeficiency SyndromeOpportunistic Diseases and cancer

  • pneumonia

  • Kaposi’s Sarcoma

Kaposi’s Sarcoma


Hiv diagnostic tests

HIV Diagnostic Tests

  • ELISA

measures

Indirect evidence of HIV exposure


Hiv diagnostic tests1

HIV Diagnostic Tests

  • Western Blot

  • PCR

Directly measures HIV


Polymerase chain reaction

Polymerase Chain Reaction

  • Measures proviral DNA within the host DNA


Western blot

Western Blot

Identifies HIV proteins

Protein ladder


Virsuses human immunodeficiency syndrome acquired immunodeficiency syndrome

Enzyme Linked Immunosorbent Assay

(ELISA)

  • A diagnostic test for Antibodies to HIV

Antibodies


Antibodies are proteins produced by our immune system that are directed against specific antigens

Antibodies are proteins produced by our immune system that are directed against specific antigens.


Virsuses human immunodeficiency syndrome acquired immunodeficiency syndrome

Antibodies

Antigens

Immune system

Non-self


Virsuses human immunodeficiency syndrome acquired immunodeficiency syndrome

Now apply these concepts to the diagnostic test known as ELISA to detect antibodies against HIV from a biologic fluid.


Do any of these individuals carry antibodies to hiv

Do any of these individuals carry antibodies to HIV?


Elisa microtiter plates

ELISA MICROTITER PLATES

Microtiter plate


The elisa protocol

The ELISA protocol

sample

Labelled 2nd Ab

antigen

3

2

1

4

Color inducing substrate


Results

Results

POSITIVE ANTI-HIV

COLOR CHANGE

NEGATIVE ANTI-HIV

NO COLOR CHANGE


Fda approves saliva oraquick rapid test for hiv 1 hiv 2 antibodies march 29 2004

FDA Approves Saliva OraQuick Rapid Test for HIV-1, HIV-2 Antibodies[March 29, 2004]

(similar test is also available for blood samples, see next slides).


Virsuses human immunodeficiency syndrome acquired immunodeficiency syndrome

1

2

OraQuick Rapid Anti-HIV Blood Test

20 minute test

Cost app. $15.00

3


Virsuses human immunodeficiency syndrome acquired immunodeficiency syndrome

Onto the ELISA lab


For your information and files

For Your Information and Files


Acquired immunodeficiency syndrome

Normal CD4+ count

Normal CD4+ (%)

AIDS

500-1600/mm3

20-40%

<350/mm3 begin anti-viral treatment

<14% serious immune damage

Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome


Virsuses human immunodeficiency syndrome acquired immunodeficiency syndrome

Experimental drugs are italicized, and approved drugs are in regular, non-italicized type)


Interesting links on hiv

Interesting links on HIV

  • http://www.niaid.nih.gov/factsheets/aidsstat.htm

    • Links to global and US HIV/AIDS statistics

  • http://www.avert.org/pregnanc.htm

    • Links to HIV and pregnancy as well as numerous other links including statistics on global epidemic; HIV/AIDS quizzes and treatment.

  • http://www.cdc.gov/hiv/pubs/facts/transmission.htm

    • Links to CDC and a comprehensive fact sheet on HIV transmission


Virsuses human immunodeficiency syndrome acquired immunodeficiency syndrome

Experimental drugs are italicized, and approved drugs are in regular, non-italicized type)Brand NameGeneric NameAbbreviationExperimental Code Pharmaceutical Company Fuzeon™enfuvirtideENFT-20Trimeris and Hoffmann-La Roche    BMS-488043Bristol-Myers SquibbGSK-873,140GlaxoSmithKlinePRO-542Progenics PharmaceuticalsSCH-DSchering-Plough CorporationTNX-355Tanox and Biogen IdecUK-427,857Pfizer What are Entry Inhibitors (including Fusion Inhibitors)?Entry inhibitors work by preventing HIV from entering healthy T-cells in the body. They work differently than many of the approved anti-HIV drugs – the protease inhibitors (PIs), the nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors (NRTIs), and the non-nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors (NNRTIs) – which are active against HIV after it has infected a T-cell. Entry inhibitors work by attaching themselves to proteins on the surface of T-cells or proteins on the surface of HIV. In order for HIV to bind to T-cells, the proteins on HIV's outer coat must bind to the proteins on the surface of T-cells. Entry inhibitors prevent this from happening. Some entry inhibitors target the gp120 or gp41 proteins on HIV's surface. Some entry inhibitors target the CD4 protein or the CCR5 or CXCR4 receptors on a T-cell's surface. If entry inhibitors are successful in blocking these proteins, HIV is unable to bind to the surface of T-cells and gain entry into the cells. Only one entry inhibitor has been approved by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA): Fuzeon™ (T-20). This drug targets the gp41 protein on HIV's surface. Some experimental drugs target proteins on T-cells: BMS-488043 targets the gp120 protein, PRO-542 and TNX-355 target the CD4 protein, and SCH-D, GSK-873,140 and UK-427,857 target the CCR5 protein. HIV-positive people who have become resistant to PIs, NRTIs, and NNRTIs will likely benefit from the entry inhibitors because they are a different class of drugs. This is good news for HIV-positive people who have tried and failed many of the currently approved anti-HIV medications.To learn more on how HIV infects a T-cell and begins to create more viruses, and where each class of anti-HIV drugs blocks this process, click on the following lesson link:The HIV Life Cycle (and the targets of each class of anti-HIV drugs)


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