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TOOLS FOR HARVEST 2013. El Dorado Home Winemaker’s Club June Meeting. Ashlie Helm [email protected] Scott Laboratories is not only a lab…. CORK. EQUIPMENT. FERMENTATION. FILTRATION. grape Structure. The Berry. Grape Cell Structure. Primary wall-

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Tools for harvest 2013

TOOLS FOR HARVEST 2013

El Dorado Home Winemaker’s Club

June Meeting

Ashlie Helm

[email protected]


Scott laboratories is not only a lab
Scott Laboratories is not only a lab…..

CORK

EQUIPMENT

FERMENTATION

FILTRATION




Grape cell structure
Grape Cell Structure

Primary wall-

Composed of Polysaccharides-Pectin, Hemi-cellulose, Cellulose & Proteins

Sugars & Acids



Enzymes for winemaking
Enzymes for winemaking

  • Skin contact enzymes- release aromas and aroma pre-cursors

  • Clarification

    • Break down pectin quickly and efficiently

    • Without the use of enzymes, you might notice there is trouble settling, and later down-stream, trouble with filtration

  • Maceration & Extraction of color and tannin


Grape cell images
Grape Cell images

Without Enzymes

With Enzymes


Merlot pomace
Merlot Pomace

With Enzymes

Without Enzymes


Enzymes reveal the potential of the grape
Enzymes- Reveal the potential of the grape!

  • Reds

    • Enhance mouth-feel and fruit

    • Improve tannin structure

    • Color stability

  • Whites

    • Enhance aromatic expression and fruit

    • Enhance mouth-feel



Hydrolysed tannins
Hydrolysed Tannins

  • Gallic Tannins

    • Gall Nuts

    • Tara

  • Ellagic Tannins

    • Chestnut

    • Oak

  • The impact of these tannins on taste dependsupon:

    • - Method of extraction (solvent, temperature)

    • - Nature of wood (origin, drying)

    • Toastingregime


Condensed tannins
Condensed Tannins

  • Condensed or Non-hydrolyzable

    • Quebracho

    • Grape

      • Skin, seeds and stems


Enological tannin application
Enological Tannin Application

  • Anti-oxidants

    • Oak and Chestnut

  • Optimizing and stabilizing color

    • Quebracho and Grape

  • Protein “stabilization”

    • Quebracho and Grape

  • Assisting with mouthfeel, structure and balance

    • Gall nut, Tara, Oak and Grape

  • Aromatic enhancement

    • Oak

  • Enhances Aging Potential


Tannin range
Tannin Range

  • SCOTT’TAN

    • Fermentation tannins

      • FT Rouge: Chestnut and Quebracho

      • FT Rouge Soft: Untoasted oak and Quebracho

      • FT Blanc: Oak Gall Nut

      • FT Blanc Soft: Oak Gall Nut

    • Fermentation/Cellar tannins

      • Uva’Tan: Skin and Seed

      • Uva’Tan Soft: 100% Skin


Tannin range1
Tannin Range

  • SCOTT’TAN

    • Finishing Tannins

      • Tannin Complex: Quebracho and Untoasted Oak

      • Tannin Estate: Grape and Toasted Oak

      • Tannin Refresh: Untoasted Oak

      • Tannin Riche: Toasted French Oak

      • Tannin Riche Extra: Toasted American Oak

    • OTT (Over the Top) Tannins

      • Tannin BOLD –Vanillin Oak character

      • Tannin Finesse - Perseption of sweetness



Managing fermentations
Managing fermentations

Plan your alcoholic fermentation and malolactic fermentation together!

Malolactic fermentations are not an

afterthought!


Influence of inoculation rate on fermentation length
Influence of inoculation rate on Fermentation length

755 hr

505 hr

Differenceof 250 hours


Influence of inoculation rate on VA production

(g/L Acetic)

0.57g/L

0.66g/L

Difference of 0.09g/L


Yeast strain acclimatization
Yeast Strain Acclimatization

  • Step1- Rehydration

    • Mix Go-Ferm in 20 times its weight in clean 43°C(110°F) water

    • For every 1 kg (2.2 lb) Go-Ferm, use approximately 5 gallons of water

    • Let the mixture cool to 40°C(104°F) then add the active dried yeast

    • Let stand for 20 minutes

    • Foaming is not an indicator of viability

  • Step 2- Acclimatization

    • Gently add some juice/must to rehydrated yeast

    • Drop temperature 15˚F and hold for 15 minutes

    • Repeat until within 15˚F of juice/must to be inoculated

  • Consequences? Stuck fermentation, off / sulfur-like aromas


Keep your yeast in suspension- especially at the end of fermentation

Aerate: when cap forms and 1/3 way through fermentation


What else should we consider
What else should we consider? fermentation

  • Was our Alcoholic fermentation successful?

  • Why should this be a consideration?

    • Vigorous ALF = Difficult MLF

    • Difficult ALF = Difficult MLF

    • Easy ALF = Easier MLF

  • Is there any nutrients left for the bacteria?


Alcoholic f ermentation 3 s tages

Lag phase fermentation

Growth

Stationary

/ml)

300

phase

CELL

phase

DEATH

6

200

Sugar (g/l)

Yeast biomass (10

Nitrogen (mg/l)

100

0

AlcoholicFermentation: 3 Stages

300

300

MICRONUTRIENTS

NITROGEN

SURVIVAL FACTORS

200

200

100

100

0

0

0

0

24

24

48

48

72

72

96

96

Time (h)


Yeast micronutrient needs 10 6 m
Yeast fermentationMicronutrient Needs (10-6M)


Yeast macronutrient needs 10 3 m
Yeast fermentationMacronutrient Needs (10-3M)


Why are sterols so important
Why fermentation are Sterolsso important?

YeastCell Wall Cross section…


Yeast cell wall composition: fermentation

Plasma Membrane is ~5% lipids

(sterols & unsaturated fatty acids)


Selectively permeable plasma membrane
Selectively Permeable Plasma Membrane fermentation

Lipid Bi-layer

After 5 generations of yeast growth

Plasma Membrane is <0.15% lipids

(sterols & polyunsaturated fatty acids)

Critically low!


Rehydration nutrients protect yeast under more difficult fermentation conditions
Rehydration Nutrients protect fermentationyeast under more difficult fermentation conditions :

  • Addition of sterols &unsaturated fatty acids

  • Protect yeast against initial osmotic shock – lower V.A.

  • Build-up yeast cell wall content of yeast stress resistant factors – protect against ethanol toxicity


Nitrogen requirements by enological yeast basic pointers
Nitrogen fermentationRequirements by Enological Yeast Basic Pointers!

  • Nitrogen demands of Saccharomyces are published

  • Nothing published about Non-Saccharomyces

  • Amount of N required is dependant upon the amount of sugar and yeast strain

  • Of nutrients assimilated by yeast during fermentation Nitrogen is, quantitatively, second to Carbon


Sugar nitrogen relationship
Sugar-Nitrogen Relationship fermentation

YAN = Ammonia + Free Amino Acids (FAN)



Yeast nitrogen sources
Yeast Nitrogen fermentationSources


Yeast nutrients supplementations
Yeast Nutrients Supplementations fermentation

  • Rehydration nutrients

    • Protection for the cells

      • Noted at the end of fermentation

    • Essential due to current winemaking practices

      • Low turbidity, high ethanol, difficult temperatures

  • Fermentation nutrients

    • Nourish the cells

    • Vital due to winemaking particulars


Best approach to dealing with fermentation nutrients
Best fermentationApproach to Dealing with Fermentation Nutrients

  • Integrated approach

    • Using Combination of Rehydration nutrient, DAP and complex nutrients

  • Understanding what cells need, why and when

    • Rehydration step: Use GoFerm to increase sterols

    • 1/3 Sugar Depletion, feed the yeast


Quality of Nitrogen on Fermentation fermentation

(INRA pilot scale trial:100L)


Impact of nitrogen source on yeast fermentation activity

Total fermentationYAN added (mg/l)

0 50 100 50 24 24

Impact of Nitrogen Source on YeastFermentation Activity

  • 24mg/l of 100% OrganicYAN issignificantly more efficient than 50 mg/l of 100% inorganicYAN

Days


Organic nitrogen and aromatics
Organic Nitrogen and Aromatics? fermentation

Amino Acids Keto Acids Alcohols Esters

AcetoglutarateGlutamate

NADH NAD+

Valine

Leucine

Isoleucine

Phenylalanine

Keto-isovalerate

Keto-isocaproate

Keto-methylvalerate

Phenylpyruvate

Iso-butanol

3-methylbutanol

2-methylbutanol

2-phenylethanol

Isobutyl acetate

Amyl acetate

Isoamyl acetate

Phenyl-ethyl acetate


Quality of nitrogen source on aromatics
Quality of Nitrogen Source on Aromatics fermentation

2007 Syrah Trial

2007 Sauvignon Blanc Trial



Yeast flavor compounds direct effects on wine flavor
Yeast flavor Compounds: Direct Effects on Wine Flavor wine…..

AROMA

  • Esters

  • Alcohols

  • Aldehydes

  • Carbonyl Compounds

  • Sulfur-containing compounds

TASTE

  • Alcohols

  • Acidity

  • Sweetness (sugar alcohols)

MOUTHFEEL

  • Glycerol ?

  • Small peptides

  • Mannoproteins



Thank you

Thank you!! wine as well…..

Ashlie Helm

[email protected]

(707) 738-5700


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