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TOOLS FOR HARVEST 2013. El Dorado Home Winemaker’s Club June Meeting. Ashlie Helm [email protected] Scott Laboratories is not only a lab…. CORK. EQUIPMENT. FERMENTATION. FILTRATION. grape Structure. The Berry. Grape Cell Structure. Primary wall-

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tools for harvest 2013

TOOLS FOR HARVEST 2013

El Dorado Home Winemaker’s Club

June Meeting

Ashlie Helm

[email protected]

scott laboratories is not only a lab
Scott Laboratories is not only a lab…..

CORK

EQUIPMENT

FERMENTATION

FILTRATION

grape cell structure
Grape Cell Structure

Primary wall-

Composed of Polysaccharides-Pectin, Hemi-cellulose, Cellulose & Proteins

Sugars & Acids

enzymes for winemaking
Enzymes for winemaking
  • Skin contact enzymes- release aromas and aroma pre-cursors
  • Clarification
    • Break down pectin quickly and efficiently
    • Without the use of enzymes, you might notice there is trouble settling, and later down-stream, trouble with filtration
  • Maceration & Extraction of color and tannin
grape cell images
Grape Cell images

Without Enzymes

With Enzymes

merlot pomace
Merlot Pomace

With Enzymes

Without Enzymes

enzymes reveal the potential of the grape
Enzymes- Reveal the potential of the grape!
  • Reds
    • Enhance mouth-feel and fruit
    • Improve tannin structure
    • Color stability
  • Whites
    • Enhance aromatic expression and fruit
    • Enhance mouth-feel
hydrolysed tannins
Hydrolysed Tannins
  • Gallic Tannins
    • Gall Nuts
    • Tara
  • Ellagic Tannins
    • Chestnut
    • Oak
  • The impact of these tannins on taste dependsupon:
    • - Method of extraction (solvent, temperature)
    • - Nature of wood (origin, drying)
    • Toastingregime
condensed tannins
Condensed Tannins
  • Condensed or Non-hydrolyzable
    • Quebracho
    • Grape
      • Skin, seeds and stems
enological tannin application
Enological Tannin Application
  • Anti-oxidants
    • Oak and Chestnut
  • Optimizing and stabilizing color
    • Quebracho and Grape
  • Protein “stabilization”
    • Quebracho and Grape
  • Assisting with mouthfeel, structure and balance
    • Gall nut, Tara, Oak and Grape
  • Aromatic enhancement
    • Oak
  • Enhances Aging Potential
tannin range
Tannin Range
  • SCOTT’TAN
    • Fermentation tannins
      • FT Rouge: Chestnut and Quebracho
      • FT Rouge Soft: Untoasted oak and Quebracho
      • FT Blanc: Oak Gall Nut
      • FT Blanc Soft: Oak Gall Nut
    • Fermentation/Cellar tannins
      • Uva’Tan: Skin and Seed
      • Uva’Tan Soft: 100% Skin
tannin range1
Tannin Range
  • SCOTT’TAN
    • Finishing Tannins
      • Tannin Complex: Quebracho and Untoasted Oak
      • Tannin Estate: Grape and Toasted Oak
      • Tannin Refresh: Untoasted Oak
      • Tannin Riche: Toasted French Oak
      • Tannin Riche Extra: Toasted American Oak
    • OTT (Over the Top) Tannins
      • Tannin BOLD –Vanillin Oak character
      • Tannin Finesse - Perseption of sweetness
managing fermentations
Managing fermentations

Plan your alcoholic fermentation and malolactic fermentation together!

Malolactic fermentations are not an

afterthought!

slide22

Influence of inoculation rate on VA production

(g/L Acetic)

0.57g/L

0.66g/L

Difference of 0.09g/L

yeast strain acclimatization
Yeast Strain Acclimatization
  • Step1- Rehydration
    • Mix Go-Ferm in 20 times its weight in clean 43°C(110°F) water
    • For every 1 kg (2.2 lb) Go-Ferm, use approximately 5 gallons of water
    • Let the mixture cool to 40°C(104°F) then add the active dried yeast
    • Let stand for 20 minutes
    • Foaming is not an indicator of viability
  • Step 2- Acclimatization
    • Gently add some juice/must to rehydrated yeast
    • Drop temperature 15˚F and hold for 15 minutes
    • Repeat until within 15˚F of juice/must to be inoculated
  • Consequences? Stuck fermentation, off / sulfur-like aromas
slide24

Keep your yeast in suspension- especially at the end of fermentation

Aerate: when cap forms and 1/3 way through fermentation

what else should we consider
What else should we consider?
  • Was our Alcoholic fermentation successful?
  • Why should this be a consideration?
    • Vigorous ALF = Difficult MLF
    • Difficult ALF = Difficult MLF
    • Easy ALF = Easier MLF
  • Is there any nutrients left for the bacteria?
alcoholic f ermentation 3 s tages

Lag phase

Growth

Stationary

/ml)

300

phase

CELL

phase

DEATH

6

200

Sugar (g/l)

Yeast biomass (10

Nitrogen (mg/l)

100

0

AlcoholicFermentation: 3 Stages

300

300

MICRONUTRIENTS

NITROGEN

SURVIVAL FACTORS

200

200

100

100

0

0

0

0

24

24

48

48

72

72

96

96

Time (h)

why are sterols so important
Why are Sterolsso important?

YeastCell Wall Cross section…

slide32

Yeast cell wall composition:

Plasma Membrane is ~5% lipids

(sterols & unsaturated fatty acids)

selectively permeable plasma membrane
Selectively Permeable Plasma Membrane

Lipid Bi-layer

After 5 generations of yeast growth

Plasma Membrane is <0.15% lipids

(sterols & polyunsaturated fatty acids)

Critically low!

rehydration nutrients protect yeast under more difficult fermentation conditions
Rehydration Nutrients protect yeast under more difficult fermentation conditions :
  • Addition of sterols &unsaturated fatty acids
  • Protect yeast against initial osmotic shock – lower V.A.
  • Build-up yeast cell wall content of yeast stress resistant factors – protect against ethanol toxicity
nitrogen requirements by enological yeast basic pointers
Nitrogen Requirements by Enological Yeast Basic Pointers!
  • Nitrogen demands of Saccharomyces are published
  • Nothing published about Non-Saccharomyces
  • Amount of N required is dependant upon the amount of sugar and yeast strain
  • Of nutrients assimilated by yeast during fermentation Nitrogen is, quantitatively, second to Carbon
sugar nitrogen relationship
Sugar-Nitrogen Relationship

YAN = Ammonia + Free Amino Acids (FAN)

yeast nutrients supplementations
Yeast Nutrients Supplementations
  • Rehydration nutrients
    • Protection for the cells
      • Noted at the end of fermentation
    • Essential due to current winemaking practices
      • Low turbidity, high ethanol, difficult temperatures
  • Fermentation nutrients
    • Nourish the cells
    • Vital due to winemaking particulars
best approach to dealing with fermentation nutrients
Best Approach to Dealing with Fermentation Nutrients
  • Integrated approach
    • Using Combination of Rehydration nutrient, DAP and complex nutrients
  • Understanding what cells need, why and when
    • Rehydration step: Use GoFerm to increase sterols
    • 1/3 Sugar Depletion, feed the yeast
slide41

Quality of Nitrogen on Fermentation

(INRA pilot scale trial:100L)

impact of nitrogen source on yeast fermentation activity

Total YAN added (mg/l)

0 50 100 50 24 24

Impact of Nitrogen Source on YeastFermentation Activity
  • 24mg/l of 100% OrganicYAN issignificantly more efficient than 50 mg/l of 100% inorganicYAN

Days

organic nitrogen and aromatics
Organic Nitrogen and Aromatics?

Amino Acids Keto Acids Alcohols Esters

AcetoglutarateGlutamate

NADH NAD+

Valine

Leucine

Isoleucine

Phenylalanine

Keto-isovalerate

Keto-isocaproate

Keto-methylvalerate

Phenylpyruvate

Iso-butanol

3-methylbutanol

2-methylbutanol

2-phenylethanol

Isobutyl acetate

Amyl acetate

Isoamyl acetate

Phenyl-ethyl acetate

quality of nitrogen source on aromatics
Quality of Nitrogen Source on Aromatics

2007 Syrah Trial

2007 Sauvignon Blanc Trial

yeast flavor compounds direct effects on wine flavor
Yeast flavor Compounds: Direct Effects on Wine Flavor

AROMA

  • Esters
  • Alcohols
  • Aldehydes
  • Carbonyl Compounds
  • Sulfur-containing compounds

TASTE

  • Alcohols
  • Acidity
  • Sweetness (sugar alcohols)

MOUTHFEEL

  • Glycerol ?
  • Small peptides
  • Mannoproteins
thank you

Thank you!!

Ashlie Helm

[email protected]

(707) 738-5700

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