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Region VII ALS SMO Revision PowerPoint PPT Presentation


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Region VII ALS SMO Revision. 2011. 2011 ALS SMO. This presentation will highlight changes in the SMO’s and also cover information that is on the 2011 SMO study booklet. Code 1 Additional parameters to the Code. Scene Safety – Assure the safety of all responding personnel

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Region vii als smo revision l.jpg

Region VII ALS SMO Revision

2011


2011 als smo l.jpg

2011 ALS SMO

This presentation will highlight changes in the SMO’s and also cover information that is on the 2011 SMO study booklet.


Code 1 additional parameters to the code l.jpg

Code 1Additional parameters to the Code

  • Scene Safety – Assure the safety of all responding personnel

  • Care begins at the bedside!

  • BSI precautions to help prevent exposure

  • For Peds, have a tape or chart like the Broselow tape, available for dosing, sizing, etc.


Code 1 cont d l.jpg

Code 1 (cont’d)

  • Review the following:

  • AVPU – Alert, Verbal, Pain and Unresponsive for level of consciousness

  • ABCDE – Airway, Breathing, Circulation, Disability and Exposure for initial patient care assessments.

  • Glascow Coma Scale – when appropriate during the focused, secondary assessment.


The addition of zofran odt ondansetron to code 1 l.jpg

The addition of Zofran ODT (Ondansetron) to Code 1

  • Given as 4mg Orally Disintegrating Tablet X 1.

  • Used to treat and/or prevent nausea in pts over 1 year of age.

  • Zofran ODT (Orally Disintegrating Tablets) are a serotonin 5-HT3 receptor blocker. It works by blocking a chemical thought to be a cause of nausea and vomiting in certain situations.


Code 1 outline for radio report when the patient s condition warrants l.jpg

Code 1 – Outline for Radio Report (when the patient’s condition warrants.)

  • 1. Name and vehicle number of provider

  • 2. Requested destination, closest hospital and estimated time of arrival

  • 3. Age, sex, and approximate weight of patient

  • 4. Chief Complaint, to include symptoms and degree of distress

  • 5. History of present illness/injury

  • 6. Pertinent Medical History: AMPLE

  • 7. Clinical condition: Survey and V/S

  • 8. Treatment initiated and Response


Abbreviated radio report l.jpg

Abbreviated Radio Report

  • 1. Name and vehicle number of provider

  • 2. Requested destination, closest hospital and estimated time of arrival

  • 3. Age and sex of patient

  • 4. Chief Complaint, to include symptoms and degree of distress

  • 5. Clinical condition: -Vital signs


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Code 3

  • The Airway Obstruction code, in the past, also referred to infant situations. The pediatric portion (less than one year) was eliminated in this revision and now Code 3 only refers to patients that are over 1 year old.


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Code 5Cardiogenic Shock(Remember Rate/Rhythm/Pump)

  • Without Dysrythmia: Increase the output with fluids (200 ml increments) or Dopamine to help the pump.

  • Dopamine dose of 5mcg/kg/min. (400mg in 250ml)

  • With Dysrythmia present:

  • Find appropriate SMO to correct it.


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Code 5

CARDIOGENIC SHOCK

INITIAL MEDICAL CARE

SBP <90

WITHOUT

DYSRHYTHMIA

SBP <90

WITH

DYSRHYTHMIA

TRANSPORT ASAP

TREAT UNDERLYING

DYSRHYTHMIA

AND TRANSPORT ASAP

IV NS fluid challenge in

200ml increments up to 1000ml

(if lungs remain clear)

OR

until SBP >90

Dopamine Drip:

400mg in 250ml D5W = 1.6mg/ml=1600mcg/ml

Dose = 5mcg/kg/min. to start

220 lbs. = 100kg x 5mcg/kg/min. = 500mcg/min. = 20microdrops/min. = 20ml/hr

132 lbs. = 60kg x 5mcg/kg/min. = 300mcg/min. = 12microdrops/min. = 12ml/hr

SBP >90

NO

YES

Initiate DOPAMINE Drip

@ 5mcg/kg/min.

Titrate to maintain

SBP >90

Continue IMC

and Rapid

TRANSPORT

Continue IMC and

Rapid TRANSPORT

Reviewed 10/01/11

Effective 05/01/98

ALS

NOTE TO PREHOSPITAL PROVIDERS:

If patient is in (or develops respiratory distress) despite treatment,

maintain airway and prepare to intubate.


Code 6 v fib pulseless v tach l.jpg

Code 6V-Fib/Pulseless V-tach

  • Stress importance of high quality CPR with minimal interruptions.

  • Only spend time on Advanced airway if unable to protect airway or effectively use BVM. Consider King tube

  • Lidocaine drip has been eliminated. Lidocaine IV push remains at 1.5mg/kg first dose and .75mg/kg subsequent dose to a max of 3mg/kg.


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Code 6

VENTRICULAR FIBRILLATION/

PULSELESS VENTRICULAR TACHYCARDIA

-ABCs

-Perform CPR until defibrillator attached

-VF/VT present on monitor

Give 1 shock

Biphasic Device Specific (120-200J)

Monophasic 360J

Resume CPR Immediately

Continue CPR – minimize any interruptions throughout resuscitation

-Intubate if unable to BVM

-Consider King tube

-IV/IO NS without interrupting CPR

Perform 5 cycles of CPR

Check Rhythm

Shockable rhythm?

-

Continue CPR while Defibrillator is charging

Biphasic device specific (120-200J) or Monophasic 360J

Resume CPR immediately after the shock

Epinephrine 1:10,000 1 mg IV/IO

Repeat every 3-5 minutes as long a rhythm persists

Perform 5 cycles of CPR

Check rhythm

Shockable rhythm?

Continue CPR while Defibrillator is charging

Give 1 shock

Biphasic Device Specific (120-200J)

or Monophasic 360J

Resume CPR immediately after shock

Consider antiarrhythmics; give during CPR

Lidocaine 1.5mg/kg IV/IO first dose

May repeat 0.75 mg/kg IV/IO

Maximum 3mg/kg

TRANSPORT

Revised 10/01/11

Effective 05/01/98

ALS


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Code 7

TACHYCARDIAS (WITH PULSE)

INITIAL MEDICAL CARE

STABLE

Rate >150

Patient is alert, without

any signs of hypoperfusion*

UNSTABLE

Rate >150 and signs

of hypoperfusion*

If conscious,

consider sedation with

MIDAZOLAM HYDROCHLORIDE (Versed)

2.5mg slow IV

Narrow

Complex

Wide

Complex

Valsalva

Maneuvers

Continue IMC

and TRANSPORT

ADENOSINE (Adenocard)

6mg IVP

Synchronous

Cardioversion**

Biphasic device specific (100-120J) or Monophasic 100-200J

If no response:

2nd dose

Biphasic escalate to maximum

Monophasic 360J

ADENOSINE (Adenocard)

12mg IVP

Continue IMC

and TRANSPORT

Contact Medical Control for further orders

ACCELERATED

TRANSPORT

NOTE TO PREHOSPITAL PROVIDERS:

1. *Signs of hypoperfusion: severe CP, severe SOB, SBP < 90, diaphoresis, altered mental status.

2. ADENOSINE (Adenocard) should always be administered RAPIDLY IVP and immediately followed with a

10ml NS bolus. Antecubital vein is preferred site to administer ADENOSINE (Adenocard).

3. Always record rhythm strip and deliver to physician caring for patient.

4. Wide Complex = QRS > 0.12 sec. (3 small boxes)

Narrow Complex = QRS < 0.12 sec.

5. Sinus Tachycardia should be treated appropriately.

6. If MIDAZOLAM HYDROCHLORIDE (Versed) is administered for sedation, the patient’s oxygen saturation must be

monitored via pulse oximetry.

7. **Do not delay synchronous cardioversion while awaiting IV access.

Reviewed 10/01/11

Effective 05/01/98

ALS


Code 9 pea asystole l.jpg

Code 9 - PEA/Asystole

  • Again, stress importance of high quality CPR with minimal interruptions.

  • Only spend time on Advanced airway if unable to protect airway or effectively use BVM. Consider King tube

  • Atropine has been removed from this Code. This is an AHA – ACLS update change. Only administer epinephrine for PEA/Asystole situations.


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Atropine

  • Not found to be helpful in PEA. The Pacemaker is not the issue, the cause of the heart not having sufficient mechanical force should be more of the focus here.

  • Still used as frontline for adult bradycardia. (Remember Epinephrine is the frontline for Peds Bradycardia)

  • Still used for Organophosphate poisoning


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Code 9

PULSELESS ELECTRICAL ACTIVITY/ASYSTOLE

PULSELESS ARREST

Perform CPR

Attach monitor/defibrillator

Asystole/PEA

Continue CPR – minimize any interruptions throughout resuscitation

-Intubate if unable to BVM

-Consider King tube

-IV/IO NS without interrupting CPR

Resume CPR immediately for 5 cycles

When IV available

Epinephrine 1:10,000 - 1 mg IV/IO

Repeat every 3 to 5 minutes

Perform 5 cycles of CPR

Check rhythm

Shockable rhythm?

Not Shockable

Shockable

Go to Code 6

Consider Treatment for possible causes

TRANSPORT

Hypothermia ------------------------------> Follow appropriate SMO

Hypovolemia -----------------------------> Fluid challenge (200ml of current IV)

Tension Pneumothorax ----------------> Pleural Decompression

Acidosis/Hypoxemia --------------------> Ventilate with 100% OXYGEN (Check tube placement)

Pulmonary Embolism ------------------> Rapid TRANSPORT with 100% OXYGEN

AT DISCRETION OF A PHYSICIAN/ECRN:

SODIUM BICARBONATE 1meq/kg IV/IO

Revised 10/01/11

Effective 05/01/98

ALS


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Code 10

BRADYCARDIA (Pulse < 60)

INITIAL MEDICAL CARE

UNSTABLE

Signs of hypoperfusion*

OR

altered mental status

STABLE

Patient is alert,

without any signs of

hypoperfusion*

ATROPINE 0.5mg IV

every 3 to 5 minutes

Up to a total dose of

0.04mg/kg

Transcutaneous Pacemaker**

(if available) at rate=70 Increase MA until pulse

is present

While pacing, consider sedation with

MIDAZOLAM HYDROCHLORIDE (Versed)

2.5mg slow IV

Rapid TRANSPORT

Continue IMC

enroute.

Titrate DOPAMINE Drip

to maintain

SBP

90 - 105

and heart rate >60

NOTE TO PREHOSPITAL PROVIDERS:

  • 1. *Signs of hypoperfusion include: severe chest pain, severe SOB, SBP <90, diaphoresis

  • If Transcutaneous Pacer not available, start DOPAMINE Drip. Begin @ 5mcg/kg/minute and titrate to patient response.

  • Refer to CARDIOGENIC SHOCK CODE 5 for DOPAMINE dosing chart.

  • 3. **Do not delay Transcutaneous Pacer while awaiting IV access or for ATROPINE to take effect if patient is symptomatic.

  • If MIDAZOLAM HYDROCHLORIDE (Versed) is administered for sedation, the patient’s oxygen saturation must be monitored

  • via pulse oximetry.

Reviewed 10/01/11

Effective 05/01/98

ALS


Code 11 induced therapeutic hypothermia l.jpg

Code 11Induced Therapeutic Hypothermia

  • Induced hypothermia for witnessed ROSC (return of spontaneous circulation) not related to trauma, hemorrhage, or infection.

  • Pt should be tubed, have 12 lead (if available), be over 16 and not pregnant with initial temp above 93.2 F. If patient is not intubated, and a King airway is present, call medical control for further orders regarding cooling.

  • Initiate cooling via ice packs and cold saline bolus of 30ml/kg up to 2L.


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Code 12

SUSPECTED CARDIAC PATIENT

INITIAL MEDICAL CARE

Perform 12-Lead ECG and Transmit, if available

SBP <90mmHg

SBP >110mmHg

SBP 90-110mmHg

4 tabs *BABY ASPIRIN PO

unless

contraindicated*

4 tabs *BABY ASPIRIN PO

unless

contraindicated*

4 tabs *BABY ASPIRIN PO

unless

contraindicated*

NITROGLYCERIN**

gr 1/150 tab OR spray SL

May repeat X 2 in 5 minutes

(If no IV, consider hospital

contact prior to administration)

Refer to

appropriate

SMO

TRANSPORT

  • Consider 12-Lead EKG for complaints of:

  • (may be deferred if patient unstable)

  • Chest pain/Discomfort/Pressure

  • Arm Pain (non-traumatic)

  • Jaw Pain (non-traumatic)

  • Upper back pain (non-traumatic)

  • Unexplained diaphoresis

  • Vomiting without fever or diarrhea

  • Shortness of breath

  • Dizziness/syncope

  • Epigastric pain

  • Fall in the elderly (unexplained)

  • Weakness/Fatigue

  • Bradycardia or Tachycardia

Repeat vital signs

MORPHINE SULFATE

2-10mg IV in 1-2mg

increments every 5 minutes

as necessary for severe chest pain.

Repeat vital signs

NOTE TO PREHOSPITAL PROVIDERS:

If adverse response to MORPHINE SULFATE consider NALOXONE (Narcan).

TRANSPORT

*Contraindications to ASPIRIN would include ASPIRIN allergy & history of gastrointestinal bleeding.

** Contact Medical Control prior to administration of NITRATES if patient is taking erectile dysfunctional medications

( i.e. Viagra, Levietra, Cialis).

Reviewed 10/01/11

Effective 05/01/98

ALS


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Code 13

PULMONARY EDEMA DUE TO HEART FAILURE

INITIAL MEDICAL CARE

Consider CPAP enroute, if available

Refer to CONTINUOUS POSITIVE AIRWAY PRESSURE ADMINISTRATION CODE 76

SBP < 90mmHg

SBP 90 - 110mmHg

SBP >110mmHg

NITROGLYCERIN*

gr 1/150 tab OR spray SL

(May repeat X 2 in 5 minutes)

(If no IV, consider hospital contact prior to administration)

If wheezing:

ALBUTEROL (Ventolin)

2.5mg via nebulizer

(May repeat X 1)

If wheezing:

ALBUTEROL (Ventolin)

2.5mg via nebulizer

(May repeat X 1)

If wheezing:

ALBUTEROL (Ventolin)

2.5mg via nebulizer

(May repeat X 1)

Refer to

CARDIOGENIC SHOCK

CODE 5

TRANSPORT

At discretion of

Physician or ECRN:

FUROSEMIDE (Lasix) 20-40 mg IV

MORPHINE SULFATE 2 mg IV

every 5 minutes up to 10 mg

NOTE TO PREHOSPITAL PROVIDERS:

* Contact Medical Control prior to administration

of NITRATES if patient is taking erectile dysfunctional medications

( i.e. Viagra, Levietra, Cialis).

TRANSPORT

Revised 10/01/11

Effective 05/01/98

ALS


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Code 76

CONTINUOUS POSITIVE AIRWAY PRESSURE

ADMINISTRATION

  • Observe body substance isolation at all times

  • Oxygenate the patient with 15 liters via non-rebreather mask while setting up CPAP

  • Connect fixed generator to portable oxygen regulator

  • Open CPAP disposable package and attach patient corrugated tubing to bottom

  • of generator and add filter to side of generator

  • Attach other end of patient tubing to bottom of mask

  • Attach 10cm isobaric peep valve to front of mask

  • Connect head strap to top of one side of mask

  • Turn oxygen tank on

  • Encourage patient to place mask over mouth and nose, then firmly attach

  • mask using final connection on side of mask

  • When patient has been placed in the ambulance, “quick connect” generator

  • to on-board oxygen

  • Monitor patient’s level of consciousness and vital signs continuously. If patient develops

  • decreased mental status or decreased blood pressure-DISCONTINUE CPAP.

  • Continuous cardiac monitoring and pulse oximetry required

  • Note:If aerosol medication treatment is indicated, cut the patient’s corrugated tubing at

  • first smooth part closest to the patient’s face. Place a “t” connector between the

  • tubing and follow ALBUTEROL administration protocol.

  • If port is available for Albuterol administration, follow manufacturers guidelines.

  • Reviewed 10/01/11

  • Effective 05/01/04

  • ALS


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Code 21

ISOLATED EXTREMITY INJURY AND/OR

AMPUTATED AND AVULSED PARTS

INITIAL TRAUMA CARE

(ABCs always take priority over the severed part)

  • Control bleeding with direct pressure and elevation

  • For uncontrolled hemorrhage:

    • Consider use of a hemostatic agent

    • Use a tourniquet if needed

      • Note time of placement

      • Apply as close to the injury as possible

      • DO NOT release once applied

NITROUS OXIDE (optional)

  • Wrap part in sterile gauze, sheet or towel.

  • Place part in waterproof bag or container and seal.

  • DO NOT immerse part in any solutions.

  • Place this container in a second one filled

  • with ice, cold water or cold pack.

Transport part to hospital with patient

TRANSPORT

NOTE TO PREHOSPITAL PROVIDER:

MORPHINE SULFATE 5-10mg slow IV in 5mg

increments every 5 minutes as necessary for pain.

Reviewed 10/01/11

Effective 05/01/98

ALS


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Code 21a

Crush Injury

Suspected in extended extremity

and/or

Torso entrapment

Check for:Pain

Paresthesia

Paralysis

Pallor

Pulselessness

Not needed, but good indicators

INITIAL MEDICAL CARE

AIRWAY AS NEEDED

Cardiac monitor as soon as possible

Morphine Sulfate 2mg increments IV/IM as

needed for pain (do not administer if

respiratory depression, bradycardia or hypotension SBP < 90)

PRIOR TO RELEASE OF COMPRESSION, INITIATE

IV Normal Saline 1000ml bolus

Albuterol (Ventolin) 2.5mg via Nebulization

  • If hyperkalemia suspected

  • and abnormal ECG rhythm - peaked T-wave or widened QRS  No  Transport

  • YES 

  • Sodium Bicarbonate 50 meq IV followed by 20ml Normal Saline flush

  • Calcium Chloride 1.0gm slow IV followed by 20ml Normal Saline flush

TRANSPORT

Reviewed 10/01/11

Effective 06/01/06

ALS

NOTE TO PREHOSPITAL PROVIDERS:

Consider hypoglycemia and need for 50% Dextrose IV.


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Code 22

BURNS

Burn patients are often victims of multiple trauma.

Treatment of major traumatic injuries takes precedence over wound management.

Isolated burn injury patients should be transferred to the closest available hospital

  • ASSESS

  • Total body surface area: use rule of 9s or estimate using patient’s palmar surface as 1%

  • Depth of burn: partial or full thickness, consider exposure to products of combustion and treat as soon as possible.

THERMAL

ELECTRICAL

CHEMICAL

INITIAL TRAUMA CARE

INITIAL TRAUMA CARE

Without placing self at risk for

injury, remove patient from source

of electricity or have power cut off.

OXYGEN 100% (Use humidified

Oxygen, if available). Note presence

of hoarseness, wheezing, stridor or

productive cough and document.

If present, refer to ACCELERATED TRANSPORT CODE 26

Brush off excess dry

chemicals

INITIAL TRAUMA CARE

Irrigate or flush with copious

amounts of water or saline

unless contraindicated.

For eye exposures Refer to

HAZARDOUS MATERIALS-EYE

CODE 40

Perform spinal immobilization,

apply monitor and treat

dysrhythmias per

appropriate SMO.

Note quality of distal pulse in

extremity burns and document.

Burn Wound Care

Burn Wound Care -

Moderate to Critical Burn

Assess for entry and exit wounds,

neurovascular status of affected parts.

Follow routine Burn Wound Care

Wear sterile gloves and masks

until burn wounds are covered.

Remove clothing, jewelry, etc.

Do not pull away clothing that

is stuck to burn wound.

No cooling necessary

TRANSPORT

Cover with dry, sterile dressings

COOL BURN with sterile water or saline until skin feels

cool to your touch. Don’t overcool any major

burn. Do not use ICE directly on burn. Cover burn

wound with sterile dressing. Moisten with Normal

Saline. DO NOT BREAK BLISTERS. DO NOT

APPLY CREAMS, OINTMENTS OR

ANTIDOTES TO BURNS.

TRANSPORT

  • NOTE TO PREHOSPITAL PROVIDER:

  • FOR ALL TYPES OF BURNS:

  • MORPHINE SULFATE 5-10mg IVP in 5mg

  • increments every 5 minutes as necessary for pain.

  • Do not administer until shock has been controlled.

  • DO NOT GIVE IM.

  • NITROUS OXIDE Inhalation (optional)

Apply sterile

dry dressing.

>20%

2° or 3°

Revised 10/01/11

Effective 05/01/98

ALS

Open sterile sheet on stretcher before placing patient for TRANSPORT.

Cover patient with dry, sterile sheets and blanket to maintain body temperature.


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Code 18

SUSPECTED SPINAL CORD INJURY

SPINAL IMMOBILIZATION

Mechanism:

Suspected Deceleration Injuries,

Motor Vehicle Crashes, Falls, etc.

Yes

Spine pain/tenderness or

complaint of neck/spine pain

No

Yes

Physical findings suggesting neck and/or back injury

No

Yes

Other painful injury identified

(Distracting Injury)

No

Yes

Decreased or altered level of consciousness

No

Abnormal?

Motor/Sensory Exam

Patient is

  • Calm

  • Cooperative

  • Alert

  • Ambulatory without pain

  • No apparent distress

  • No suspected intoxication

  • Having an acute stress reaction

  • Suspected of being intoxicated

  • Have symptoms of brain injury

  • Acting inappropriately

  • Having difficulty communicating,

  • such as, speaks a foreign language, deaf, etc.

Reliable patient exam

IMMOBILIZE

Reviewed 10/01/11

Effective 05/01/98

ALS

NO IMMOBILIZATION NEEDED


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Code 30

ACUTE ASTHMA/COPD WITH WHEEZING

INITIAL MEDICAL CARE*

TRANSPORT IMMEDIATELY

DO ALL TREATMENT ENROUTE

ALBUTEROL (Ventolin)

2.5mg via nebulizer

(may repeat x1)

May administer patient’s

EPINEPHRINE PEN, if available

Continue TRANSPORT

AT THE DESCRETION OF A PHYSICIAN/ECRN:

1. Administer EPINEPHRINE 1:1000 @ 0.01mg/kg

up to 0.3mg IM (may repeat in 15 minutes).

Reviewed 10/01/11

Effective 05/01/98

ALS

2. CPAP if available

NOTE TO PREHOSPITAL PROVIDERS:

1) *OXYGEN @ 2 - 6L/min. If severe respiratory distress or cyanosis, 15L NRB

2) IV optional unless patient is in severe respiratory distress or pending failure

3) For pediatric patients, refer to PEDIATRIC RESPIRATORY DISTRESS CODE 55.

4) If intubation required, may give ALBUTEROL (Ventolin) in-line via ET tube.

5) For prolonged geographical transport, consider METHYLPREDNISOLONE (Solu-Medrol) 125mg IV push.


Code 32 33 34 diabetes overdose coma addition of intranasal med l.jpg

Code 32, 33, 34 (Diabetes, Overdose & Coma)Addition of Intranasal Med

  • Narcan and Glucagon may be given intranasally.

  • Mix and draw med and dose as normal.

  • Replace needle with a MAD (medication atomization device) tip.

  • Place in nostril till cone seals.

  • Administer half the dose.

  • Repeat in other nostril for second half of the dose.


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Code 35

SEIZURES/STATUS EPILEPTICUS*

INITIAL MEDICAL CARE

  • Protect patient from injury

  • Protect patient airway

Obtain Blood Glucose Reading

If <60

OR signs and symptoms of Insulin Shock or Hypoglycemia

DEXTROSE 50ml of 50% IVP

OR

GLUCAGON 1mg IM/IN

(If IV not able to be established)

If seizure activity > 2 - 3 minutes,

MIDAZOLAM HYDROCHLORIDE (Versed) 2.5 mg IV (may repeat X 1 in 5 minutes)

If no IV, may administer MIDAZOLAM HYDROCHLORIDE (Versed) 2.5 mg IM

(may repeat X 1 in 5 minutes)

TRANSPORT

*Refer to PEDIATRIC SEIZURES CODE 59, as indicated

Reviewed 10/01/11

Effective 05/01/98

ALS


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Code 33*

DRUG OVERDOSE

ALCOHOL RELATED EMERGENCIES/POISONING

INITIAL MEDICAL CARE

Obtain Blood Glucose Reading

If suspected narcotic or synthetic narcotic overdose and respiratory rate <12

Administer NALOXONE (Narcan) 2mg IV/IM/IN

(Consider restraints prior to administration.)

May be repeated every 5 minutes as necessary, up to 6mg.

If blood sugar

level <60:

DEXTROSE 50% 50ml IVP

OR

GLUCAGON 1mg IM/IN

(If IV not able to be established)

TRANSPORT

NOTE TO PREHOSPITAL PROVIDERS:

*Refer to PEDIATRIC ALTERED LEVEL

OF CONSCIOUSNESS CODE 60, as needed

SUSPECTED TRICYCLIC ANTIDEPRESSANT OVERDOSE**

INITIAL MEDICAL CARE

SODIUM BICARBONATE 1meq/kg IVP. If hypotensive,

altered level of consciousness, or dysrhythmias are present,

Consider additional doses of SODIUM BICARBONATE, if symptoms persist

TRANSPORT

Revised 10/01/11

Effective 05/01/98

ALS

**TRICYCLIC ANTIDEPRESSANTS INCLUDE:

AMITRIPTYLINE, AMOXAPINE, ASCENDIN, DESIPRAMINE, DESYREL, ELAVIL, ENDEP,

IMIPRAMINE, LUDIOMIL, NORPARAMINE, PAMELOR, SINEQUAN, TRIAVIL, TOFRANIL, and others


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Code 36

HEAT EMERGENCIES

INITIAL MEDICAL CARE

HEAT CRAMPS OR TETANY

(IV may not be necessary)

Allow for oral intake of water or

electrolyte replacement fluids

HEAT EXHAUSTION OR SYNCOPE

IV NS rapid rate- regular tubing

If B/P <90, IV wide open,

establish second IV.

Move patient to a cool environment

Move patient to a cool environment,

do not massage cramped muscles

Place in supine position

with feet elevated

TRANSPORT

HEAT STROKE

Remove as much clothing as

possible to facilitate cooling

B/P <90

B/P >90

IV NS fluid challenge in

200ml increments up to 1000ml

(if lungs remain clear)

OR

until SBP >90

IV NS TKO

TRANSPORT

Move patient to a cool environment

Place patient in semi-reclining position with head elevated.

Take seizure precautions.

Increase OXYGEN to 100%.

When indicated,

intubate and use positive pressure ventilations.

  • Initiate rapid cooling:

  • Remove as much clothing as possible.

  • Cool packs to lateral chest wall, groin, axilla, carotid arteries, temples, and behind knees

  • and/or sponge with cool water or cover with wet sheet and fan the body.

TRANSPORT

Reviewed 10/01/11

Effective 05/01/98

ALS


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Code 38

SUSPECTED STROKE

INITIAL MEDICAL CARE

Perform Cincinnati Pre-Hospital Stroke Scale*

Identify patients last “known normal”

If Stroke scale positive and “last known normal” < 3 hours,

transport to the nearest most appropriate facility.

Do not delay scene time. Initiate rapid transport.

Blood Glucose

GO TO CODE 32

< 60 or > 400

12 Lead EKG, if available

Other SMO CODE’s as indicated:

Coma of Unknown Origin

Seizures

  • *Cincinnati Prehospital Stroke Scale

  • Facial Droop (Have the patient show teeth or smile)

    • Normal – Both sides of face move equally well

    • Abnormal – One side of face does not move as well as the other side

  • Arm Drift (Patient closes eyes and holds both arms straight out for 10 seconds)

    • Normal – Both arms move the same or both arms do not move at all (other findings,

    • such as pronator grip, may be helpful)

    • Abnormal – One arm does not move or one arm drifts down compared with the other

  • Speech (Have the patient say, “You can’t teach an old dog new tricks.”)

    • Normal – Patient uses correct words with no slurring

    • Abnormal – Patient slurs words, uses inappropriate words, or is unable to speak

Revised 10/1/11

Effective 05/01/10

ALS


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Code 47

ABNORMAL DELIVERIES

PROLAPSED CORD

TRANSPORT IMMEDIATELY

INITIAL MEDICAL CARE:

Increase OXYGEN to 100%

Elevate mother’s hips

Place gloved hand in vagina between pubic bone and presenting part

with cord between fingers and exert counterpressure against presenting part

Keep exposed cord

moist and warm

Keep hand in position while enroute

BREECH BIRTH

  • Accelerated transport indicated with care enroute

  • NEVER ATTEMPT TO PULL THE BABY FROM THE VAGINA BY THE LEGS OR TRUNK.

  • As soon as legs are delivered, support baby’s body, wrapped in towel.

  • After shoulders are delivered, gently elevate trunk and legs to aid in delivery of head (if face down). Head

  • should deliver in 30 seconds. IF NOT, reach two gloved fingers into the vagina to locate infant’s mouth.

  • Press vaginal wall away from baby’s mouth to form an airway and apply gentle pressure to mother’s

  • mid upper abdomen. Maintain this position until delivery or arrival at the hospital.

Reviewed 10/01/11

Effective 05/01/98

ALS


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Code 68

RESTRAINTS AND BEHAVIORAL EMERGENCIES

Maintain situational awareness and scene safety. Introduce yourself to the patient, and attempt to gain their confidence in a non-threatening manner. If the patient refuses assistance, attempt to determine their mental status. This includes determining their orientation and the presence of anything that could produce an altered mental status, such as drug/alcohol intoxication or withdrawal, trauma (head injury), hypoxia, hypotension, hypoglycemia, stroke, infections, psychological emergencies (i.e. homicidal, suicidal, psychosis, etc.) or dementia (i.e. acute or chronic organic brain syndromes).

No

If the mental status is judged to be abnormal,

prehospital personnel must carry out treatment and

transport in the patient’s best interest.

In any form of intervention, prehospital personnel must ALWAYS CONSIDER THEIR OWN SAFETY FIRST!

1. Again attempt to verbally reassure the patient and seek their willing cooperation.

2. If it is necessary to physically restrain a patient, perform all the following:

A. Prepare all the necessary equipment.

B. Use police and /or fire personnel if needed. If available, have one person assigned to each extremity and one to hold

equipment.

C. Apply the restraints as loosely as possible to maintain a safe situation, but prevent neurovascular compromise and undue

patient discomfort. Apply restraints over clothing when possible.

D. Never place restraints over a patient's chest or on the abdomen of a pregnant patient.

E. Perform routine and specific medical care as indicated by the patient’s condition. Routinely document the neurovascular

status of the patient’s extremities distal to the restraints.

F. Notify the receiving hospital of the situation, and request security assistance upon arrival.

G. Continue to attempt to verbally reassure the patient and seek their cooperation. Inform the patient’s family of the reasons

for the use of restraints.

H. Thoroughly document the situation including the reasons for using restraints and how they were applied.

I. At no time will towels, washcloths or other devices be placed over the mouth and/or nose of a restrained patient for any

reason.

J. Never restrain a patient in the prone position.

K. For reasons of medical safety, any patient who is under police hold and requires handcuffs, must have a police officer

accompany the patient in the back of the ambulance while enroute to the hospital or provide the transporting EMS

personnel with keys to the handcuffs.

NOTE TO PREHOSPITAL PROVIDERS:

Once restrained, continue to be conscious of

the patient’s airway and other medical needs.

Reviewed 10/01/11

Effective 05/01/98

ALS


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Page 3 of 3

Code 73

OTHER INTRAOSSEOUS NEEDLE INSERTION

“Power driver” Insertion Steps continued:

  • Remove power driver and stylet.

  • Confirm catheter stability.

  • Attach primed extension set to catheter hub’s luer lock.

    Do not attach a syringe directly to the catheter hub.

  • Flush the adult catheter with 10ml of Normal Saline. Flush the pediatric catheter

    with 5ml of Normal Saline.

    Important: Prior to flush consider the aspiration of a small amount of blood

    to confirm placement.

    * No Flush = No Flow Failure to appropriately flush the IO catheter

    may result in limited or no flow.

    * Once IO catheter has been flushed, administer fluids or medications

    as indicated.

    Note: Frequently monitor the insertion site for extravasation.

Reviewed 10/01/11

Effective 05/01/10

ALS


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Code 75Endotracheal Intubation

  • Deleting the bullet point for using the Sellick Maneuver (continuous cricoid pressure). This is an AHA change.

    Code 75a

    Medication Assisted Intubation

  • Deleting the use of anesthetic spray. We have found that this spray is rarely used and not needed in most cases of medication assisted intubation cases.


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ENDOTRACHEAL INTUBATIONADULT AND PEDIATRIC

Assure that the patient is being adequately oxygenated/ventilated prior to intubation.

Have suction ready

Continuous pulse oximetry and cardiac monitoring

Select and prepare proper ET tube:

ET tube size is determined by comparison of the patient’s nares or little finger (refer to the Length Based Pediatric Tape for Pediatric population)

Insert stylet

Check ET tube for cuff leakage

Lubricate tube

Prepare laryngoscope:

Select proper blade

Check light

Place patient in “sniffing position,” unless contraindicated

Preoxygenate patient with 100% O2 via BVM

Insert laryngoscope:

Hold in left hand, insert blade into right side of mouth, sweep tongue to the left

Visualize vocal cords:

Straight blade: Direct blade below epiglottis and lift handle up and away from you

Curved blade: Direct blade into vallecula and lift handle up and away from you

DO NOT USE TEETH AS A FULCRUM

Using right hand, insert tube between vocal cords

Remove stylet, if used

Check tube placement by:

- Auscultation of both axillae and epigastrium

- Pulse oximetry reading

- Use of appropriate CO detector

Inflate cuff with 5-10ml of air, if appropriate

Secure tube appropriately

Reassess tube placement while ventilating patient

Code 75

Revised 10/01/11

Effective 05/01/98

ALS


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Code 85Intranasal Administration

  • In order to administer a medication intranasally, you must use an atomization device (MAD).

  • Remove the needle from the syringe and replace it with the MAD.

  • Administer ½ of the total dose in each nostril. If able, have the patient tilt their head back.

  • IV doses of medication remain the fastest route, however, you may consider the nasal route if an IV is not established.


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Code 24

TRAUMA IN PREGNANCY

Principles of Management

  • A. Routine Trauma Care

  • B. Increased IV volume is needed. Establish IV. If total transport

  • time is less than 30 minutes, no IV should be attempted unless

  • it will not delay transport to the nearest Trauma Center

  • C. Check externally for uterine contractions.

  • D. Check externally for vaginal bleeding.

  • Unless spinal injury is suspected, transport the patient on her left side to

  • minimize uterine compression of the inferior vena cava.

  • F. If a patient with suspected spinal injury becomes hypotensive

  • while supine on backboard, elevate right side of backboard to

  • relieve pressure on vena cava from uterus.

  • G. Manually displace the uterus to the left side during CPR.

Reviewed 10/01/11

Effective 05/01/98

ALS


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SMO Revisions

We would like to thank David Nagel of the Orland Fire Protection District for assistance with this power point presentation.


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