bruce kelly abengoa solar incorporated berkeley california june 2008
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Past, Present, and Future of Solar Thermal Generation

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Bruce Kelly Abengoa Solar, Incorporated Berkeley, California June 2008. Past, Present, and Future of Solar Thermal Generation. Topics . Solar resource Solar thermal technologies Early projects Current projects Future plans. Solar Resource.

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bruce kelly abengoa solar incorporated berkeley california june 2008
Bruce Kelly

Abengoa Solar, Incorporated

Berkeley, California

June 2008

Past, Present, and Futureof Solar Thermal Generation

slide2

Topics

  • Solar resource
  • Solar thermal technologies
  • Early projects
  • Current projects
  • Future plans
solar resource
Solar Resource
  • Southwest US, filtered for environmental areas, urban areas, water, and slope < 3%
  • 9,800 TWhe potential
  • 3,800 TWhe US energy consumption
parabolic trough
Parabolic Trough
  • Type: Glass mirror; single axis tracking; line focus
  • Nominal concentration: 80:1
  • Heat collection fluid: Synthetic oil
  • Peak temperature: 393 C
central receiver
Central Receiver
  • Type: Glass mirror, two axis tracking, point focus
  • Nominal concentrations: 600 to 1,200:1
  • Heat collection fluids: Steam, air, or nitrate salt
  • Peak temperatures: 400 to 850 C

Photo by Mike Taylor, SEPA

linear fresnel
Linear Fresnel
  • Type: Glass mirror, single axis tracking, line focus
  • Nominal concentration: ~100:1
  • Heat collection fluid: Saturated steam
  • Peak temperature: ~260 C

Photos taken by Mike Taylor, SEPA

parabolic trough8
Early projects

Solar Electric Generating Stations (SEGS)

SEGS I and II: 14 and 30 MWe; Daggett

SEGS III through VII: 30 MWe; Kramer Junction

SEGS VIII and IX: 80 MWe; Harper Lake

Financed through very favorable combination of investment tax credits, Standard Offers, and PURPA requirements

All are still in operation

Parabolic Trough
parabolic trough9
Current projects

Acciona: 64 MWe Nevada Solar One

Solar Millennium: 50 MWe AndaSol 1

Nevada Solar One financed through investment tax credit and renewable portfolio standard

AndaSol 1 financed through Spanish feed-in tariff at ~$0.40/kWhe

Parabolic trough technology investment to date ~$3,000 million

Parabolic Trough
parabolic trough10
Future plans

Spain: 50 MWe; limited by tariff structure

US: 125 to 250 MWe; economies of scale

Advanced collector coolants

Direct steam generation, and inorganic nitrate salt mixtures

450 to 500 C collector field temperatures

More efficient Rankine cycles

Why not yet? → Direct steam generation has complex controls, and salt freezes

Parabolic Trough
central receiver12
Early projects

France, Spain, Italy, Japan, and United States

1 to 10 MWe

Receiver coolants: Sodium; nitrate salt; compressed air; and water/steam

Design point efficiencies were close to, but annual energy efficiencies were well below, predictions

Most suffered from lack of operating funds

Central Receiver
central receiver13
Current projects

Abengoa: PS10 and PS20

US DOE: Solar Two (1999)

PS10 and PS20: Saturated steam receivers; high reliability, but below-commercial efficiency

Solar Two: Nitrate salt receiver, thermal storage, and steam generator; high efficiency, but poor reliability

Technology investment to date ~$1,000 million

Central Receiver
central receiver14
Future plans

Abengoa: Superheated steam; compressed air; and nitrate salt

SolarReserve: Nitrate salt in South Africa and US

eSolar: 13 distributed superheated steam receivers; very small heliostats; central 30 MWe Rankine cycle

BrightSource: 4 towers; small heliostats; central 100 MWe reheat Rankine cycle

Central Receiver
central receiver15
Why not yet?

Superheated steam: Moderate annual efficiencies; thermal storage may be impractical

Compressed air: Complex receiver; small plant sizes; thermal storage may be impractical

Nitrate salt: Less than perfect operating experience; equipment development must occur at commercial scale, with ~$750 million project investment

Central Receiver
performance and cost
Performance and Cost
  • Annual efficiencies, capital costs, operation and maintenance costs, and levelized energy costs
    • Parabolic trough
    • Nitrate salt central receiver
parabolic trough17
Parabolic Trough
  • Annual solar-to-electric efficiencies
    • 14 to 16 percent gross
    • 12 to 14 percent net
  • Capital cost
    • ~$4/We without thermal storage; includes project financing, interest during construction, and owner’s costs
    • ~$5 to $8/We with thermal storage
parabolic trough18
Parabolic Trough
  • Operation and maintenance cost
    • $0.02 to $0.04/kWhe
  • Levelized energy costs
    • $0.14 to $18/kWhe with Southwest US direct normal radiation and 30 percent investment tax credit
    • $0.35 to $0.40/kWhe with southern Spain direct normal radiation and no financial incentives
salt central receiver
Salt Central Receiver
  • Annual solar-to-electric efficiencies
    • 17 to 19 percent gross
    • 15 to 17 percent net
  • Capital cost
    • ~$4/We with minimum thermal storage; includes project financing, interest during construction, and owner’s costs
    • ~$7/We with thermal storage at 70 percent annual capacity factor
salt central receiver20
Salt Central Receiver
  • Operation and maintenance cost
    • $0.02 to $0.03/kWhe
  • Levelized energy cost
    • For a commercially mature design (which does not yet exist), a nominal 20 percent below that of a parabolic trough project
future markets
Future Markets
  • Capital investment essentially dictated by commodity prices
  • Energy price parity with natural gas combined cycle plant is unlikely
  • Solar thermal energy is
    • Much better matched to utility peak demand than wind
    • Immune to rapid changes in plant output common with photovoltaic projects
future markets22
Future Markets
  • With 30 percent investment tax credit and property tax exemption, solar energy prices are within $0.02 to $0.03/kWhe of market price referant
  • Renewable portfolio standards, plus a modest carbon tax, should provide a commercial, multi-GWe market for solar thermal projects
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