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PGCE Physical Education Sheffield Hallam University 2010-2011. Developing Professional Practice in Physical Education Module Code 77-7982-00L (L7) 77-6675-00L (L6). Words of wisdom. “is this a thinking lesson Miss?”.
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Developing Professional Practice in Physical Education
Module Code 77-7982-00L (L7)
“is this a thinking lesson Miss?”
Use Pass the Buck (see Giniss Files on BB) task to connect the learning- Working on your own
You have one minute to bullet point all the attributes of what you think is effective teaching (Connect).
Working with a partner
Swap information and add to your list
After a minute swap papers with another pair and read what you receive. (Activate 1)
Now add to the list anything that you feel is missing.
Get your original paper back and read the bullet points.
Using this information draft a statement that underpins the essence of effective teaching (Activate 2)
ALL working together
Either read out or transfer to white board (Demonstrate)
Look at the bottom of the iceberg – any similarities or differences – why is this so – pedagogical approach based on your own approach
Study the statement on the iceberg below the water. Infill the iceberg below the water the behind the scene stuff with what you think effective teaching is about(Consolidate)
The Processes of Pedagogy
A combination of thinking, planning, philosophy and ongoing self reflection involved teaching.
“You arethe lead learner in your own classroom”
What I am looking for: What are we learning today:
Compare and contrast the difference and similarities between learners
Differentiate between teaching styles and pupils learning styles
Appraise the theoretical principles of personalised learning and active learning
Outline the principles of both active and accelerated learning and the role of these in managing pupils learning in the classroom settingLearning Outcomes (WILF & WALT)
and - how was it for you?
\'It\'s a bit like having a tin of beans but no can opener. What a waste\'
year 10 student
“teachers’ perceptions of a pupil’s intelligence strongly affect the pupil’s own view of his or her ability, and pupils’ opinions of peers are heavily influenced by such perceptions”
Oxford Brookes University
“Learning is a full bodied, human process, and so is teaching”
( R W Connell – School and Social Justice)
Its not just about
Having a body of knowledge- but of course this is important!
Or having the capacity to control a classroom – you can’t control people or the behaviour of others, but you can influence that person, and that behaviour
Teaching and learning are about establishing human relationships with the people being taught
So from now onwards see yourself as the teacher who is the architect of the learning episode – introducing, organizing, making it safe, giving feedback, encouraging , asking probing questions and managing the learning experience throughoutInfluencing pupils is not an option!
highly focused lesson design with sharp objectives
high demands of pupil involvement and engagement with their learning
high levels of interaction for all pupils not just between teacher and pupil but pupil/s and pupil/s
appropriate use of teacher questioning, modelling and explaining
an emphasis on learning through dialogue, with regular opportunities for pupils to talk both individually and in groups
an expectation that pupils will accept responsibility for their own learning and work independently
regular use of encouragement and authentic praise to engage and motivate pupils.personalised learning agenda
Learning environment is well organised and used flexibly
Quality learning space. Good lighting, heating, ventilation, acoustics, access for disabled pupils, and a sense of well-being will enhance levels of pupils\' concentration.
Good decorative order, the appropriate use of colour and visual displays are also key prerequisites for accessibility and an effective learning environment.
Visual resources, ICT resources and the \'outdoor classroom\' provided within the school grounds or locality
Other common adaptations include:
rearrangement of furniture within the classroom to facilitate whole-class or small group teaching and learning approaches, taking account of any access requirements
maximising the use of shared spaces for large group activities, such as team teaching or providing a common stimulus for a number of groups or classes
providing suitable small spaces for small group intervention work or one-to-one tuition, or calm withdrawal areaspersonalised learning agenda
●the scheme of work
● the pupils’ prior knowledge and understanding
2. Identifying the learning objectives for the pupilsHigh Quality Teaching and Learning - How?
3. Structuring the teaching sequence or lesson as a series of episodes by separating the learning into distinct stages or steps and selecting:
● the best pedagogic approach to meet the learning objectives
● the most appropriate teaching and learning strategies and techniques
● the most effective organisation for each episode
● a stimulating start to the lesson that relates to the objectives
● transitions between episodes which are clearly signposted for the pupils
● a final plenary that reviews learning and identifies next steps
This is more than demonstrating. Through the teacher ‘thinking
aloud’ it helps pupils to understand underlying structures,processes and conventions.
Explaining is crucial in helping pupils understand abstract
concepts and events that are outside their own experiences.
When planned and correctly sequenced, questioning can promote
higher order thinking skills and structure the development of
knowledge and understanding.Strategy Importance
A pattern based learning process know as constructivism where learning
is essentially active
where new learning is based on the constructs of previous experience
that new learning is assimilated into the web of understanding that already exists in the learners mind
that each child structures his or her knowledge in a unique pattern of understanding
Thus differentiation is a major component of active learning methodology
For more information on the biological principles of learning see Paul Ginnis\'s text the Teachers Toolkit or let watch an expert in action!active Learning as a part of personalised learning
Accelerated Learning Cycle - a framework for planning lessons to meet personalised learning agenda
VAK - a type of learning style (rational but a basic grouping of learners)
apply theoretical and experiential knowledge of learning, teaching and assessment to classroom based lessons
select and evaluate strategies designed to encourage more active learning approachesLearning Outcomes
1. Sit quietly with your eyes closed and think about a teacher or a number of teachers that had a positive influence on you.
2. Imagine yourself as that teacher. What feelings do you have as you are teaching? Remember as many things as you can and write them down.
3.Look around the room and pick a partner that you want to work with. When you have a partner choose which one is A and which one is B tell each other about your learning experiences and compare you written notes. Add to your own if necessary
4. After 3 -4 minutes change partners and do the same
5. Join 2 other pairs and map out attributes of good teaching on a learning poster using the group role criteria on the OHP/PP
6. transfer to a learning board at the front of the classroomA connection Phase activity -Task teacher biography
How does she/he connect, active and consolidate learning?
What VAK strategies are used
‘Walk the talk’
Be realistic – Rome wasn’t built in a day!
Take responsibility – Don’t become a victim!
Take action – leave your comfort zone
Keep an open mind – make sure your glass is always half full - not half emptyWords of wisdom -Teaching is an ongoing journey – you are at the start
Insanity – doing the same thing the same way and expecting a different result
Without deviation, progress is just not possible
A Lesson from the best Phil Beadle Teacher of the year 2004
Words of wisdom\'Variety is the Spice of Life\'
“Practical experience shows us that direct teaching of concepts is impossible and fruitless. A teacher who tries to do this usually accomplishes nothing but empty verbalisation, a parrot like repetition of words by the child, simulating a knowledge of the corresponding concepts but actually covering up a vacuum”
( Vygotsky 1986, cited in Capel 1997 pg229)Don’t become insane
Many studies have show that attainment improves when learner are taught in their preferred style - any problems with this?
Look at the National Curriculum inclusion statement(2008)
Personalised Learning is at the heart of equal opportunity issuesWhy are we bothered?
Others by information that they hear - auditory learners
while others learn best by doing, touching and feeling – kinaesthetic learners
Etch the following in your mind (or on you school planning diary)
People are different and react differently to the same circumstances
Look at the Geography lesson on the Alite DVD -Learners are all different
Comment on the professional relationship that this teach has with his group.
Comment on his professional linguistic code with his students
What strategies does he use to engage his pupils?
What do you think about how this teacher uses his voice?
Is a noisy classroom a unproductive classroom?
Comment on his differentiation techniques.Close up - minimising classroom stress
“to activate real understanding represent the key learning via different intelligences”
\' a set of biological and developmentally imposed set of personal characteristics that make the same teaching method effective for some students and ineffective for others\'
It is like your signature – a preferred way of using your abilities
Much work now being done on multiple intelligences
http://www.thirteen.org/edonline/concept2class/mi/index.htmlBut I have 30 pupils – how can I manage all learning styles?
ENVIRONMENTAL – sound, light, temperature, design
EMOTIONAL – motivation, persistence, responsibility, structure
SOCIOLOGICAL – self, peers, team, adult, varied
PHYSICAL – perceptual, intake, time, mobility
PSYCHOLOGICAL- global/analytic, hemisphericity, impulsive/reflective
Can teachers influence any of these elements?Dunn\'s and Dunn\'s framework of learning styles
\' There are...utterly destructive consequences of acting without knowing what one is doing\'
Explain to an other how to get to university from your house
Could you get there? How would you like to have it explained to you?
Some excellent resources to use with care
This one may be useful to you in school
http://www.bgfl.org/bgfl/custom/resources_ftp/client_ftp/ks1/ict/multiple_int/questions/choose_lang.cfmWhat about me what\'s my learning style?
\'Do not fall into the trap of teaching to your own learning style\'
OBSERVATION – natural and least intrusive
STRUCTURED CHOICE – provide different types of learning experience for the same topic. e.g. discussion group ( auditory), a group using a audio cassette or computer software ( visual, auditory), a group who can provide visual aids for teaching or build a concept using readily available materials ( visual and kinaesthetic).
THROUGH QUESTIONAIRRES – quick, easy to administer but should only be used for reflection and to enhance your teaching effectivenessSo I prefer this way – where next?
Do I connect the:
The learners themselves?A summary of the Accelerated Learning Cycle
Do I :
Structure active reflection on content and process?
Review and then preview?
Do I :
utilize a multi-sensory approach?
add language to doing?
Do I :
Use educative feedback?
Offer multiple Ways of demonstrating understanding?
Success, ownership and involvement are key principles
Pupils must see the learning as individually important to them
Pupils must see that their ideas and contributions are valued
Pupils should feel emotionally secure and psychologically safeCreate ACTIVE LEARNING environments
There are no magic wands, no guarantees, we are simply looking for strategies that make it more likely that students will think about and make sense of the material that they encounter.
“trying to learn without reviewing is like trying to fill a bath without putting the plug in”
A teacher internalised view of a student can have a direct impact on the students actual performance – self fulfilling prophecy
So it is important that you always
express confidence in your ability to help a student
express confidence in the students ability
use non verbal signs positively and consistently e.g.. eye contact, tone of voice, levels of energy
give detailed input to all students
encourage individual improvement through challengeWhere is my starting point?
“adults laugh up to twenty times a day, whilst young children laugh as much as three hundred times”
The Owner’s Manual for the Brain
\' good behaviour and discipline in school are essential to successful teaching and learning\' ( DFES)
\' most misbehaviour in the classroom is about movement\'
\'Misbehaviour can also be a means of seeking attention\'
SOME HARD FACTS
Sharing LO with the class - watch Chemistry lesson Alite
How did the teacher connect the learning?
How did she activate learning?
How did she demonstrate student learning?
What do you think about the way she assesses and monitors learning?
What about feedback?
What do you think bell work is?
Did she use the accelerated learning approach if so how? - ( activating your learning form last week)
Comment on how she manages the classroom environment to promote learning.
Where does she use the multi sensory approach to learning?
What are your thoughts about this overall approach?
Working with a partner use Lesson Report form 2 to comment where you can against the Q standards outlined be precise with your feedback as this is evidence.Close up
Misbehaviour in the classroom – A major stressor for teachers
establish and conform to certain routines
Pupils will test out new teachers
Successful class management comes form the ability to anticipate and plan for problems before they ariseClass management skills designed to prevent misbehaviour
Similarities between learners are your principles of design for active learning. We are safe in assuming that:
Everyone has a need to work things out for themselves
Experiences that are multi-sensory, dramatic, unusual or emotionally strong are remembered for longer and in more detail than ordinary, routine experiences
Everyone needs to feel emotionally secure and psychologically safe
Learners are more motivated, engaged and open when they have some control over their learningSo overall prospects of raising the achievement of your pupils looks good - Ok so how do I do it?
http://students.shu.ac.uk/cis/software/What is misbehaviour
Using examples from what you have seen consider how the accelerated approach can be use to contribute to your online discussion phase one
"Teaching styles and effective learning in Physical Education. What works and why?
express confidence in your ability to help the pupils
nonverbal signs must be consistent with what you say - tone of voice; eye contact, level of energy
give specific and ample feedback mentioning both the good and bad
give detailed input to all students encourage individual improvement through challengeHow do I communicate high expectations?
“in a while I am going to ask you what you know about x, before I do that think of three things you already know about x … now, when you are ready describe your three things to your partner then see if together you can get five things.”
“you can change the seating arrangement in your classroom in the time it takes to play the ‘Flight of the Bumblebee’
1 People do not learn effectively when placed under negative stress - low stress, high challenge is the ideal state for learning.
2 The maximum time for which children can concentrate is approximately two minutes in excess of their chronological age in minutes. Even adults cannot concentrate for longer than 20-25 minutes.What we know about Effective Learning
3 People learn more at the beginning and end of a learning experience than they do in the middle. This is sometimes referred to as the BEM principle.
4People learn in different ways: some prefer to see information (visual learners), some will learn more effectively if they hear information (auditory learners), while others will learn best by doing - touching, feeling, making (kinaesthetic learners).AND
6 People remember dramatic, emotional, unexpected experiences. People remember context much better than they remember content.
7 Recall is dramatically improved when information is regularly reviewed. Without review, information is forgotten almost immediately.ALSO
CREATE THE SUPPORTIVE LEARNING ENVIRONMENT
CONNECT THE LEARNING
Starter/ Bell Activities
THE BIG PICTURE
How the lesson fits the SOW
DESCRIBE THE OUTCOMES
REVIEW FOR RECALL & RETENTION
review the lesson and start framing and linking to the next lesson
the new information that the learner needs
how will the students feedback their learning
what the students will do to process the information
Using “we” language
Affirmation posters on the wall
Making your room a No Put Down Zone
Having a colourful and stimulating display on the walls
Arranging the furniture to facilitate the learning
Playing music to set a particular moodCreating the learning environment
getting students to write down the 3 most important things they learned from the previous lesson - then pair share it with a friend and try to make it up to 5
Getting students to solve anagrams of keywords from previous lessonConnect the Learning
“You only understand information relative to what you already understand”
Use Big Pictures - post images relating to the whole topic around the room
Use module maps
Make a keyword display and get students to add to a keyword glossary each lesson
Make a simple link to everyday life – easy in PE as the body is at the centre of much of PE discourse – and everyone has a body!!!!Big Picture First
“Can’t do a jigsaw without looking at the picture on the box”
Let students know what “they will be able to do by the end of the lesson that they could not do before
Write learning outcomes clearly in a prominent place in the classroom so students can see them
Refer to learning outcomes throughout the lessonDescribe the Learning Outcomes
“Do your pupils have a clue as to why they are learning what they are learning - have you told them”
WILF and WALT are becoming very popular at KS3
Allow students to process new information through the Multiple intelligences
“Its not how smart you are - its how you are smart”
Use the “question wall”
The block it review - 3 things I leaned, 2 questions I still want to ask, one thing I already knew
Teach memory techniques - get students to put on their memory SPECS, See it, Personalise it, Exaggerate it, Connect it, Share it
Preview next lessonReview
“Learning without reviewing is like trying to fill the bath without putting the plug in”
“Maybe not today, Maybe not tomorrow, but the next day and for the rest of their lives”
These methodologies rely on the pupils innate curiosity and desire to make connections between old and new knowledge.
Broken PiecesDesign Tools for Active LearningEncouraging students to work things out for themselves
It has been suggested that people retain 95% of what they teach to someone else
Peer teaching will enable pupils to learn meanings through social intercourse
So peer teaching, drafting ideas, presenting information to others are classic ways of getting students to articulate their ideas
Back to Back
Scrambled GroupsDesign Tools for Active LearningEncouraging students to articulate "draft ideas"
Question your own learning experiences Did \'deep learning\' occur when the teacher gave you printed notes, dictations etc?
Some of these activities can be quite demanding in terms of class organisation – try them if you dare!!!
MarketplaceDesign Tools for Active LearningThere is little point in giving students "ready made meaning"
Usually pupils will need lots of examples and explanations in different media if there are to \'get it\' deep rather that learn it shallow
Multi sensory methodologies are needed
Go LargeDesign Tools for Active LearningCome at the same concepts from different angles and in different ways
Feedback is most effective when controlled by the learner
Pass the Buck
Wheel of fortuneDesign Tools for Active LearningProvide interactive feedback that is specific and immediate
In your teaching groups you will be given a section form the Chapter on Cardiovascular-respiratory systems
Each group should carry out the specific research – in this case using the chapter but other information could be used.
During this process every group member is responsible for recording the key points for their section of research.
Each group should then prepare a visual teaching resource using some of the resources that are provided for you
One member of the group will be left at base as teacher to teach visitors the content of their resource. Other group members become the hunter gatherers of information. They need to gather the key bits of information from all the other groups and return back to base with it at the end of the activity.
The teacher will be changed at various times during the session.
On return to base each group should attempt to put the information together in a sequential of topic related manner.Additional task