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PGCE Physical Education Sheffield Hallam University 2010-2011. Developing Professional Practice in Physical Education Module Code 77-7982-00L (L7) 77-6675-00L (L6). Words of wisdom. “is this a thinking lesson Miss?”.

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pgce physical education sheffield hallam university 2010 2011
PGCE Physical Education Sheffield Hallam University2010-2011

Developing Professional Practice in Physical Education

Module Code 77-7982-00L (L7)

77-6675-00L (L6)


Words of wisdom

“is this a thinking lesson Miss?”


Use Pass the Buck (see Giniss Files on BB) task to connect the learning- Working on your own

You have one minute to bullet point all the attributes of what you think is effective teaching (Connect).

Working with a partner

Swap information and add to your list

After a minute swap papers with another pair and read what you receive. (Activate 1)

Now add to the list anything that you feel is missing.

Get your original paper back and read the bullet points.

Using this information draft a statement that underpins the essence of effective teaching (Activate 2)

ALL working together

Either read out or transfer to white board (Demonstrate)

Look at the bottom of the iceberg – any similarities or differences – why is this so – pedagogical approach based on your own approach

Study the statement on the iceberg below the water. Infill the iceberg below the water the behind the scene stuff with what you think effective teaching is about(Consolidate)

(Process )


Effective Teaching

The Processes of Pedagogy

A combination of thinking, planning, philosophy and ongoing self reflection involved teaching.

  • Passion
  • Pupils teacher relationships
  • Respect
  • Individualised learning
  • Embedding Appropriate teaching styles
  • Recognition of difference in preferred learning style
  • Innovation
  • Taking risks
  • Making mistakes
  • Reflecting on practice
  • Variation from lesson to lesson and week to week
  • Having some ground rules
  • Provision of thinking time
  • low stress high challenge environment
  • Motivation
  • energy
  • planning

Words of wisdom

“You arethe lead learner in your own classroom”

lead learner of the moment

We need to look at the big picture.

The learning and teaching sessions in university, college and school

Module Assessment of Learning

See Modular Handbook and Blackboard site

lead learner of the moment ......
learning outcomes wilf walt

By the end of the session you should :

What I am looking for: What are we learning today:

Compare and contrast the difference and similarities between learners

Differentiate between teaching styles and pupils learning styles

Appraise the theoretical principles of personalised learning and active learning

Outline the principles of both active and accelerated learning and the role of these in managing pupils learning in the classroom setting

Learning Outcomes (WILF & WALT)

What was that lesson like for you Colin?

And you


and Ben,

and Leanne

and Vicky

and - how was it for you?

\'It\'s a bit like having a tin of beans but no can opener. What a waste\'

year 10 student


Words of wisdom

“teachers’ perceptions of a pupil’s intelligence strongly affect the pupil’s own view of his or her ability, and pupils’ opinions of peers are heavily influenced by such perceptions”

Oxford Brookes University

August 2000

influencing pupils is not an option

Good or bad ? – the choice is yours!!

“Learning is a full bodied, human process, and so is teaching”

( R W Connell – School and Social Justice)

Its not just about

Having a body of knowledge- but of course this is important!

Or having the capacity to control a classroom – you can’t control people or the behaviour of others, but you can influence that person, and that behaviour

Teaching and learning are about establishing human relationships with the people being taught

So from now onwards see yourself as the teacher who is the architect of the learning episode – introducing, organizing, making it safe, giving feedback, encouraging , asking probing questions and managing the learning experience throughout

Influencing pupils is not an option!
personalised learning agenda


highly focused lesson design with sharp objectives

high demands of pupil involvement and engagement with their learning

high levels of interaction for all pupils not just between teacher and pupil but pupil/s and pupil/s

appropriate use of teacher questioning, modelling and explaining

an emphasis on learning through dialogue, with regular opportunities for pupils to talk both individually and in groups

an expectation that pupils will accept responsibility for their own learning and work independently

regular use of encouragement and authentic praise to engage and motivate pupils.

personalised learning agenda

personalised learning agenda1

FROM - The learners perspective

Learning environment is well organised and used flexibly

Quality learning space. Good lighting, heating, ventilation, acoustics, access for disabled pupils, and a sense of well-being will enhance levels of pupils\' concentration.

Good decorative order, the appropriate use of colour and visual displays are also key prerequisites for accessibility and an effective learning environment.

Visual resources, ICT resources and the \'outdoor classroom\' provided within the school grounds or locality

Other common adaptations include:

rearrangement of furniture within the classroom to facilitate whole-class or small group teaching and learning approaches, taking account of any access requirements

maximising the use of shared spaces for large group activities, such as team teaching or providing a common stimulus for a number of groups or classes

providing suitable small spaces for small group intervention work or one-to-one tuition, or calm withdrawal areas

personalised learning agenda
high quality teaching and learning how

1. Locating the teaching sequence or lesson in the context of:

●the scheme of work

● the pupils’ prior knowledge and understanding

2. Identifying the learning objectives for the pupils

High Quality Teaching and Learning - How?

3. Structuring the teaching sequence or lesson as a series of episodes by separating the learning into distinct stages or steps and selecting:

● the best pedagogic approach to meet the learning objectives

● the most appropriate teaching and learning strategies and techniques

● the most effective organisation for each episode


4. Ensuring coherence by providing:

● a stimulating start to the lesson that relates to the objectives

● transitions between episodes which are clearly signposted for the pupils

● a final plenary that reviews learning and identifies next steps

strategy importance


This is more than demonstrating. Through the teacher ‘thinking

aloud’ it helps pupils to understand underlying structures,processes and conventions.


Explaining is crucial in helping pupils understand abstract

concepts and events that are outside their own experiences.


When planned and correctly sequenced, questioning can promote

higher order thinking skills and structure the development of

knowledge and understanding.

Strategy Importance
active learning as a part of personalised learning

A pattern based learning process know as constructivism where learning

is essentially active

where new learning is based on the constructs of previous experience

that new learning is assimilated into the web of understanding that already exists in the learners mind

that each child structures his or her knowledge in a unique pattern of understanding

Thus differentiation is a major component of active learning methodology

For more information on the biological principles of learning see Paul Ginnis\'s text the Teachers Toolkit or let watch an expert in action!

active Learning as a part of personalised learning

Personalised learning - the policy

Accelerated Learning Cycle - a framework for planning lessons to meet personalised learning agenda

VAK - a type of learning style (rational but a basic grouping of learners)

learning outcomes

By the end of the session you should: or WILF and WALT

apply theoretical and experiential knowledge of learning, teaching and assessment to classroom based lessons

select and evaluate strategies designed to encourage more active learning approaches

Learning Outcomes
a connection phase activity task teacher biography

1. Sit quietly with your eyes closed and think about a teacher or a number of teachers that had a positive influence on you.

2. Imagine yourself as that teacher. What feelings do you have as you are teaching? Remember as many things as you can and write them down.

3.Look around the room and pick a partner that you want to work with. When you have a partner choose which one is A and which one is B tell each other about your learning experiences and compare you written notes. Add to your own if necessary

4. After 3 -4 minutes change partners and do the same

5. Join 2 other pairs and map out attributes of good teaching on a learning poster using the group role criteria on the OHP/PP

6. transfer to a learning board at the front of the classroom

A connection Phase activity -Task teacher biography

Watch a teacher at work - Alite DVD Chemistry lesson ? PE lesson

How does she/he connect, active and consolidate learning?

What VAK strategies are used

words of wisdom teaching is an ongoing journey you are at the start

Words of wisdom

‘Walk the talk’

Be realistic – Rome wasn’t built in a day!

Take responsibility – Don’t become a victim!

Take action – leave your comfort zone

Keep an open mind – make sure your glass is always half full - not half empty

Words of wisdom -Teaching is an ongoing journey – you are at the start
variety is the spice of life

Insanity – doing the same thing the same way and expecting a different result

Without deviation, progress is just not possible

A Lesson from the best Phil Beadle Teacher of the year 2004

Words of wisdom

\'Variety is the Spice of Life\'
don t become insane

“Practical experience shows us that direct teaching of concepts is impossible and fruitless. A teacher who tries to do this usually accomplishes nothing but empty verbalisation, a parrot like repetition of words by the child, simulating a knowledge of the corresponding concepts but actually covering up a vacuum”

( Vygotsky 1986, cited in Capel 1997 pg229)

Don’t become insane
why are we bothered

Many studies have show that attainment improves when learner are taught in their preferred style - any problems with this?

Look at the National Curriculum inclusion statement(2008)

Personalised Learning is at the heart of equal opportunity issues

Why are we bothered?
learners are all different

Some may learn by information that they receive – Visual learners

Others by information that they hear - auditory learners

while others learn best by doing, touching and feeling – kinaesthetic learners

Etch the following in your mind (or on you school planning diary)

People are different and react differently to the same circumstances

Look at the Geography lesson on the Alite DVD -

Learners are all different
close up minimising classroom stress

Watch Alite Geog lesson

Comment on the professional relationship that this teach has with his group.

Comment on his professional linguistic code with his students

What strategies does he use to engage his pupils?

What do you think about how this teacher uses his voice?

Is a noisy classroom a unproductive classroom?

Comment on his differentiation techniques.

Close up - minimising classroom stress
the context of teaching and learning in the noughtiess

Families have changed

  • Leisure has become more individualized
  • More children in the classroom
  • We are not as healthy
  • We teach information migrants
  • We have become time shifters
  • Certainties are fewer
  • Who are the children\'s role models?
  • Technology is pervasive and penetrative
The context of teaching and learning in the \'noughtiess\'
left right brains
Left & right brains
















Whole context

stretching the connections
Stretching the connections


but i have 30 pupils how can i manage all learning styles

What is a learning style?

\' a set of biological and developmentally imposed set of personal characteristics that make the same teaching method effective for some students and ineffective for others\'

It is like your signature – a preferred way of using your abilities

Much work now being done on multiple intelligences

But I have 30 pupils – how can I manage all learning styles?
dunn s and dunn s framework of learning styles

A persons learning style is a combination of all five categories

ENVIRONMENTAL – sound, light, temperature, design

EMOTIONAL – motivation, persistence, responsibility, structure

SOCIOLOGICAL – self, peers, team, adult, varied

PHYSICAL – perceptual, intake, time, mobility

PSYCHOLOGICAL- global/analytic, hemisphericity, impulsive/reflective

Can teachers influence any of these elements?

Dunn\'s and Dunn\'s framework of learning styles
what about me what s my learning style

A starting point then is to recognise your own style

\' There are...utterly destructive consequences of acting without knowing what one is doing\'

Explain to an other how to get to university from your house

Could you get there? How would you like to have it explained to you?

Some excellent resources to use with care

This one may be useful to you in school

What about me what\'s my learning style?

Danger !

\'Do not fall into the trap of teaching to your own learning style\'

so i prefer this way where next

Check your students learning styles through:

OBSERVATION – natural and least intrusive

STRUCTURED CHOICE – provide different types of learning experience for the same topic. e.g. discussion group ( auditory), a group using a audio cassette or computer software ( visual, auditory), a group who can provide visual aids for teaching or build a concept using readily available materials ( visual and kinaesthetic).

THROUGH QUESTIONAIRRES – quick, easy to administer but should only be used for reflection and to enhance your teaching effectiveness

So I prefer this way – where next?

“the basics of self-esteem:







a summary of the accelerated learning cycle


Do I connect the:


The processes?

The learners themselves?

A summary of the Accelerated Learning Cycle


Do I :

Structure active reflection on content and process?

Seek transfer?

Review and then preview?


Do I :

pose problems?

utilize a multi-sensory approach?

add language to doing?


Do I :

Use educative feedback?

Vary groupings?

Offer multiple Ways of demonstrating understanding?

create active learning environments

Principles of Active Learning–

Success, ownership and involvement are key principles

Pupils must see the learning as individually important to them

Pupils must see that their ideas and contributions are valued

Pupils should feel emotionally secure and psychologically safe

Create ACTIVE LEARNING environments
just a cautionary note
Just a cautionary note!

There are no magic wands, no guarantees, we are simply looking for strategies that make it more likely that students will think about and make sense of the material that they encounter.


“trying to learn without reviewing is like trying to fill a bath without putting the plug in”

Mike Hughes

Personalised learning

where is my starting point

A teacher internalised view of a student can have a direct impact on the students actual performance – self fulfilling prophecy

So it is important that you always

express confidence in your ability to help a student

express confidence in the students ability

use non verbal signs positively and consistently e.g.. eye contact, tone of voice, levels of energy

give detailed input to all students

encourage individual improvement through challenge

Where is my starting point?

“adults laugh up to twenty times a day, whilst young children laugh as much as three hundred times”

The Owner’s Manual for the Brain

stick by your principles and it will be plain sailing or will it

Three facts

\' good behaviour and discipline in school are essential to successful teaching and learning\' ( DFES)

\' most misbehaviour in the classroom is about movement\'

\'Misbehaviour can also be a means of seeking attention\'


  • It is easier to prevent misbehaviour in the classroom than to deal with it afterwards
  • There is less misbehaviour and more learning in classes in which there is effective class management
  • Behaviour in class is directly affected by classroom management skills
  • Behaviour in classrooms are based on teaching style, learning styles of the individuals in the class and the circumstances
Stick by your principles and it will be plain sailing – or will it?
close up

Promoting ownership of learning how?

Sharing LO with the class - watch Chemistry lesson Alite

How did the teacher connect the learning?

How did she activate learning?

How did she demonstrate student learning?

What do you think about the way she assesses and monitors learning?

What about feedback?

What do you think bell work is?

Did she use the accelerated learning approach if so how? - ( activating your learning form last week)

Comment on how she manages the classroom environment to promote learning.

Where does she use the multi sensory approach to learning?

What are your thoughts about this overall approach?

Working with a partner use Lesson Report form 2 to comment where you can against the Q standards outlined be precise with your feedback as this is evidence.

Close up

“Ten classroom stressors for pupils

  • low self esteem
  • lack of self-belief
  • unpredictability
  • unacceptable levels of risk
  • feeling out of control
  • inability to make connections
  • lack of perceived value
  • negative or no feedback
  • poor communications
  • inappropriate learning diet”

Misbehaviour in the classroom – A major stressor for teachers


class management skills designed to prevent misbehaviour

Remember the best judges of teachers are the pupils

establish and conform to certain routines

Pupils will test out new teachers

Successful class management comes form the ability to anticipate and plan for problems before they arise

Class management skills designed to prevent misbehaviour
so overall prospects of raising the achievement of your pupils looks good ok so how do i do it

Similarities between learners are your principles of design for active learning. We are safe in assuming that:

Everyone has a need to work things out for themselves

Experiences that are multi-sensory, dramatic, unusual or emotionally strong are remembered for longer and in more detail than ordinary, routine experiences

Everyone needs to feel emotionally secure and psychologically safe

Learners are more motivated, engaged and open when they have some control over their learning

So overall prospects of raising the achievement of your pupils looks good - Ok so how do I do it?

Discussion Carousel

Using examples from what you have seen consider how the accelerated approach can be use to contribute to your online discussion phase one

"Teaching styles and effective learning in Physical Education. What works and why?

how do i communicate high expectations

Express confidence in all your pupils

express confidence in your ability to help the pupils

nonverbal signs must be consistent with what you say - tone of voice; eye contact, level of energy

give specific and ample feedback mentioning both the good and bad

give detailed input to all students encourage individual improvement through challenge

How do I communicate high expectations?

“in a while I am going to ask you what you know about x, before I do that think of three things you already know about x … now, when you are ready describe your three things to your partner then see if together you can get five things.”


“you can change the seating arrangement in your classroom in the time it takes to play the ‘Flight of the Bumblebee’

session 3

By the end of the session you should:

have experienced the active learning environment from a learners perspective

set up an active learning task for student work in Sheffield College for the next session

Session 3

Teaching and Learning

  • “Map of the Session”
  • We will consider what we know about effective learning and discuss the implications for our classrooms.
  • Experience working in the Multiple Intelligence Classroom
  • Explore the Accelerated Learning cycle as a scaffolding for planning stimulating and engaging lessons
  • Have a go at planning an Accelerated Learning Lesson – for Sheffield College teaching sessions
what we know about effective learning

1 People do not learn effectively when placed under negative stress - low stress, high challenge is the ideal state for learning.

2 The maximum time for which children can concentrate is approximately two minutes in excess of their chronological age in minutes. Even adults cannot concentrate for longer than 20-25 minutes.

What we know about Effective Learning

3 People learn more at the beginning and end of a learning experience than they do in the middle. This is sometimes referred to as the BEM principle.

4People learn in different ways: some prefer to see information (visual learners), some will learn more effectively if they hear information (auditory learners), while others will learn best by doing - touching, feeling, making (kinaesthetic learners).


5 Learning is greatly enhanced when the whole brain is engaged.

6 People remember dramatic, emotional, unexpected experiences. People remember context much better than they remember content.

7 Recall is dramatically improved when information is regularly reviewed. Without review, information is forgotten almost immediately.

so how do i teach effectively from the beginning

Convey your status

teach competently

be effective in your class management

deal with misbehaviour consistently and fairly

Communicate high expectations

So how do I teach effectively from the beginning?




Starter/ Bell Activities


How the lesson fits the SOW



review the lesson and start framing and linking to the next lesson


the new information that the learner needs


how will the students feedback their learning


what the students will do to process the information

creating the learning environment

Create the learning environment by:


Using “we” language

Affirmation posters on the wall

Making your room a No Put Down Zone

Having a colourful and stimulating display on the walls

Arranging the furniture to facilitate the learning

Playing music to set a particular mood

Creating the learning environment
connect the learning

Connect the Learning by:

getting students to write down the 3 most important things they learned from the previous lesson - then pair share it with a friend and try to make it up to 5

Getting students to solve anagrams of keywords from previous lesson

Connect the Learning

“You only understand information relative to what you already understand”

big picture first

Unsure how to show the Big Picture:

Use Big Pictures - post images relating to the whole topic around the room

Use module maps

Make a keyword display and get students to add to a keyword glossary each lesson

Make a simple link to everyday life – easy in PE as the body is at the centre of much of PE discourse – and everyone has a body!!!!

Big Picture First

“Can’t do a jigsaw without looking at the picture on the box”

describe the learning outcomes

Share the learning outcomes

Let students know what “they will be able to do by the end of the lesson that they could not do before

Write learning outcomes clearly in a prominent place in the classroom so students can see them

Refer to learning outcomes throughout the lesson

Describe the Learning Outcomes

“Do your pupils have a clue as to why they are learning what they are learning - have you told them”

WILF and WALT are becoming very popular at KS3


Allow students to process new information through the Multiple intelligences









“Its not how smart you are - its how you are smart”

demonstrate new understanding

Students show they understand by:

Each one teach one


Hot seating

Tape it

Video voice over

Role play

Who wants to be a millionaire

Interactive display

Mini whiteboards

Demonstrate new understanding

“If you understand it you can explain it”


Review not just what you learned but how you learnt it:

Use the “question wall”

The block it review - 3 things I leaned, 2 questions I still want to ask, one thing I already knew

Teach memory techniques - get students to put on their memory SPECS, See it, Personalise it, Exaggerate it, Connect it, Share it

Preview next lesson


“Learning without reviewing is like trying to fill the bath without putting the plug in”


What we do effects the lives of the students we teach...

“Maybe not today, Maybe not tomorrow, but the next day and for the rest of their lives”

design tools for active learning encouraging students to work things out for themselves

These methodologies rely on the pupils innate curiosity and desire to make connections between old and new knowledge.


Question time

Question Generator

Broken Pieces

Design Tools for Active LearningEncouraging students to work things out for themselves
design tools for active learning encouraging students to articulate draft ideas

It has been suggested that people retain 95% of what they teach to someone else

Peer teaching will enable pupils to learn meanings through social intercourse

So peer teaching, drafting ideas, presenting information to others are classic ways of getting students to articulate their ideas

Back to Back

Corporate Identity

Discussion Carousel

Scrambled Groups

Design Tools for Active LearningEncouraging students to articulate "draft ideas"
design tools for active learning there is little point in giving students ready made meaning

Question your own learning experiences Did \'deep learning\' occur when the teacher gave you printed notes, dictations etc?

Some of these activities can be quite demanding in terms of class organisation – try them if you dare!!!



Design Tools for Active LearningThere is little point in giving students "ready made meaning"

Usually pupils will need lots of examples and explanations in different media if there are to \'get it\' deep rather that learn it shallow

Multi sensory methodologies are needed

Bodily Functions

Multi-sensory Memories

Go Large

Design Tools for Active LearningCome at the same concepts from different angles and in different ways
design tools for active learning provide interactive feedback that is specific and immediate

\'Hot\' feedback is the most effective for developing learning

Feedback is most effective when controlled by the learner

Calling Cards

Pass the Buck

Wheel of fortune

Design Tools for Active LearningProvide interactive feedback that is specific and immediate

additional task

In your teaching groups you will be given a section form the Chapter on Cardiovascular-respiratory systems

Each group should carry out the specific research – in this case using the chapter but other information could be used.

During this process every group member is responsible for recording the key points for their section of research.

Each group should then prepare a visual teaching resource using some of the resources that are provided for you

One member of the group will be left at base as teacher to teach visitors the content of their resource. Other group members become the hunter gatherers of information. They need to gather the key bits of information from all the other groups and return back to base with it at the end of the activity.

The teacher will be changed at various times during the session.

On return to base each group should attempt to put the information together in a sequential of topic related manner.

Additional task