Part 1: Greece Part 2: Alexander the Great. Lesson 20. Part 1: Greece Theme: The Decline of the City-states. Lesson 20. ID & SIG. Delian League, Marathon, Peloponnesian War, Persian Wars, Thermopylae. Persian Wars.
Persians attempting to force the pass at Thermopylae
Thermopylae by David
He was a great general, orator, and statesman.
Under Pericles Athenian democracy reached it height. Strengthened and extended the Athenian empire, he established colonies in important and rebellious areas.
He used the navy to keep the Persians out of the Aegean Sea.
Pericles begins by dismissing his own speechmaking ability: "[I]t is hard to speak properly upon a subject where it is even difficult to convince your hearers that you are speaking the truth."
"The world will little note, nor long remember what we say here."
Pericles then dwells on what we might call "Athenian exceptionalism": "Our constitution does not copy the laws of neighboring states; we are rather a pattern to others than imitators ourselves." A bit later, he adds, "In short, I would say that as a city we are the school of Hellas."
This brought to mind Lincoln's beginning, "Four score and seven years ago our fathers brought forth, on this continent, a new nation, conceived in Liberty, and dedicated to the proposition that all men are created equal. Now we are engaged in a great civil war, testing whether that nation, or any nation so conceived and so dedicated, can long endure."
Alexander’s original mole has grown over the centuries and is now a broad landbridge with roads and buildings on it.
No. of ships Origin
80 Sidon, Aradus, and Byblus
3 Soli and Mallus
Composition of Alexander’s Fleet
5th Century Greek Battering Ram
Seal of King Darius
Darius III, King of Persia
The military genius of Alexander the living to live up to the standard set by the fallen. "So dies these men as became Athenians," says Pericles. "You, their survivors, must determine to have as unaltering a resolution in the field."
“The Persians still relied on multitudes. Alexander was introducing new tactics.”
Theodore Dodge, Alexander the Great, 385.
Flying column reserves
The wedge to penetrate an opening
Striking not merely with mass but at the right place and time
All around security
Discipline of troops
Ability to determine the enemy weakness and seize opportunity rapidlyGaugamela (Arbela)
"The Marriage of Alexander the Great and Roxanna" by Ishmail Parbury