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Section 6 Digital Combinational Circuits. CMOS Circuits. Combinational Static Dynamic Sequential Static Dynamic. Static Combinational Network. VDD. CMOS Circuits Pull-up network-PMOS Pull-down network- NMOS Networks are complementary to each other

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Section 6 Digital Combinational Circuits

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Section 6

Digital Combinational Circuits


CMOS Circuits

  • Combinational

    • Static

    • Dynamic

  • Sequential

    • Static

    • Dynamic


Static Combinational Network

VDD

  • CMOS Circuits

  • Pull-up network-PMOS

  • Pull-down network- NMOS

  • Networks are complementary to each other

  • When the circuit is dormant, no current flows between supply lines.

  • Number of the NMOS transistors (PMOS transistors) equals to the number of the inputs.

  • Output load is capacitive

PMOS

Network

Output

Inputs

NMOS

Network


NAND Gates

Transistors in Parallel

1/Rcheff = (1/Rch1) + (1/Rch2)

Transistors in Series

Rcheff = Rch1 + Rch2


NAND Gates: Analysis

DC Analysis

Two possible scenarios:

1. Both inputs are toggling

2. One input is toggling, the other one set high

Assumptions: MP2=MP1=MP

MN1=MN2=MN

W/L for MP = (W/L)p

W/L for MN = (W/L)n

Compare with a CMOS inverter: MP/MN

Determine KR, hence the shift in VTC


NAND Gates: Analysis

Scenario #1-

Both inputs are toggling

L-H > (W/L)eff = 2(W/L)p

H-L > (W/L)eff = 1/2(W/L)n

KR|NAND = 1/4 KR|INV

Scenario #2-

One input is toggling

L-H > (W/L)eff = (W/L)p

H-L > (W/L)eff = 1/2(W/L)n

KR|NAND = 1/2 KR|INV

Vin

Inverter

One input toggling

V

OH

Two inputs toggling

Vin=Vout

V

OL

Vout

Vx2 Vx1


NAND Gates: Analysis

Switching Analysis

Scenario #1-

Both inputs are toggling

tPLH |NAND = 1/2tPLH |INVERTER

tPHL |NAND = 2tPHL |INVERTER

Scenario #2-

One input is toggling

tPLH |NAND = tPLH |INVERTER

tPHL |NAND = 2tPHL |INVERTER


NAND Gates: Layout

Layout

Transistors in Series

Transistors in Parallel


NAND Gates: Layout

VDD

Via

Metal II

X

A

B

GND


NAND Gate: Power Dissipation

Pac= .f . C VDD2

A B X

0 0 1

1 0 1

0 1 1

1 1 0

 = P (X=1). P (X=0)

assuming A and B have equal probabilities for 1 and 0

 = (1/4). (3/4)= 3/16

C = CL + C parasitic


AND Gate: Layout

1. Draw the schematic

2. Do the stick diagram

3. Optimize stick diagram

4. Generate Layout


NOR Gate: Analysis

DC Analysis/ AC Analysis

Two possible scenarios:

1. Both inputs are toggling (one is set low)

2. One input is toggling, the other one set high

Assumptions: MP2=MP1=MP

MN1=MN2=MN

W/L for MP = (W/L)p

W/L for MN = (W/L)n

Compare with a CMOS inverter: MP/MN

KR, and the shift in VTC

Propagation delay tPLH andtPHL


NOR Gate: Layout

VDD

X

B

A

GND


4 INPUT NOR Gate

VDD

Very slow rise time and rise delays

Could be compensated by increasing

of PMOS transistor size.

Implications:

Silicon Area

Input capacitance

A

B

C

D

X

B

C

A

C

D

L


Practical Considerations

1. Minimize the use of NOR gates

2. Minimize the fan-in of NOR gates

3. Limit the fan-in to 4 for NAND gates

4. Use De morgan’s theorem to reduce the number of fan-in per gate

Example:


p+ layer

contact

n+ layer

active

polysilicon

metal

(diffusion)

Analysis and Design of Complex Gate

Analysis

1. Construct the schematic

2. Determine the logic function.

3. Determine transistor sizes.

4. Determine the input pattern to

cause slowest and fastest

operations.

5. Determine the worst case rise

delay (tPLH)and fall delay (tPHL)

6. Determine the best case rise

and fall delays.

A B C D E F

VDD

OUT

N-well

GND

A B C D E F


Transmission Gate

Bi-directional switch, passes digital signals

Less complex and more versatile than AND gate

Passes analog signals

Problems:

Large ON resistance during transitions of input signals

Large input and output capacitance

(useful for data storage applications)

Capacitive coupling

Applications:

Multiplexers, encoders, latches, registers

various combinational logic circuits

C

A

B

C


NMOS/PMOS as Pass Transistors

NMOS Transistor

Passes weak “1” signal

Vo = VDD -VTN

Passes “0” signal undegraded

C

Vo

VDD -VTN

Vi

Vo

CL

VDD -VTN

Vi

PMOS Transistor

Passes “1” signal undegraded

Passes weak “0” signal

Vo= -VTP

Vo

C

Vi

Vo

-VTP

CL

Vi

-VTP


Vo

Vin

nmos:sat nmos:sat nmos:off

pmos:sat pmos:lin pmos:lin

0V |VTP| VDD-VTN VDD

TX Gate: Characteristics

0


TX Gate: Layout

C

VDD

P+

P+

Vi

VO

N+

N+

C

VSS

C

C

For data path structure


TX Gate: Applications

Exclusive OR

12 Transistors

8 Transistors

Multiplexers

Realization of Combinational Logic Functions


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