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Withdraw blood. Centrifuge. Place in tube. PLASMA 55%. CONSTITUENT. MAJOR FUNCTIONS. CELLULAR ELEMENTS 45%. Solvent for carrying other substances. CELL TYPE. NUMBER (per mm 3 of blood). FUNCTIONS. Water. Erythrocytes (red blood cells). Salts. 5–6 million.

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Figure 23.13

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Figure 23 13

Withdrawblood

Centrifuge

Place in tube

PLASMA 55%

CONSTITUENT

MAJOR FUNCTIONS

CELLULAR ELEMENTS 45%

Solvent forcarrying othersubstances

CELL TYPE

NUMBER(per mm3 of blood)

FUNCTIONS

Water

Erythrocytes(red blood cells)

Salts

5–6 million

Transport ofoxygen (and carbon dioxide)

Sodium

Potassium

Calcium

Magnesium

Chloride

Bicarbonate

Osmotic balance,pH buffering, andregulation ofmembranepermeability

Leukocytes(white blood cells)

Defense andimmunity

5,000–10,000

Plasma proteins

Albumin

Fibrinogen

Immunoglobins(antibodies)

Osmotic balance,pH buffering

Clotting

Immunity

Lymphocyte

Basophil

Eosinophil

Substances transported by blood

Monocyte

Nutrients (e.g., glucose, fatty acids, vitamins)

Waste products of metabolism

Respiratory gases (O2 and CO2)

Hormones

Neutrophil

Platelets

250,000–400,000

Blood clotting

Figure 23.13


Blood components plasma transports solutes

Blood Components: Plasma Transports Solutes

Figure 16-1: Composition of blood


Blood components blood count of each component

Blood Components: "Blood Count" – % of Each Component

Figure 16-2: The blood count


Hematopoiesis blood cell formation

Hematopoiesis: Blood Cell Formation

  • Mostly in bone marrow from stem cells

  • Rate regulated by cytokines & growth factors


Stem cells offer a potential cure for leukemia and other blood cell diseases

Stem cells offer a potential cure for leukemia and other blood cell diseases

  • All blood cells develop from stem cells in bone marrow

    • Such cells may prove valuable for treating certain blood disorders

Figure 23.17


Hematopoiesis blood cell formation1

Hematopoiesis: Blood Cell Formation


Focus on rbcs

Focus on RBCs:

Bone marrow


Blood components cells

Blood Components: Cells

Erythrocytes

Red Blood Cells (RBC)

O2 & CO2 transport

Leukocytes

White Blood Cells (WBC)

Immune defense

Phagocytosis

Thrombocytes

Platelets: clotting


Focus on rbcs1

Focus on RBCs:

  • Loose their nucleus

  • Cytoskeleton – shape

  • Hemoglobin

    • Binds O2 in heme group

    • Binds some CO2 on globulin


Red blood cells transport oxygen

Red blood cells transport oxygen

  • Red blood cells contain hemoglobin

    • Hemoglobin enables the transport of O2

Figure 23.14


Focus on rbcs2

Focus on RBCs:

Hemoglobin


Some diseases of rbcs and o 2 transport

Some Diseases of RBCs and O2 Transport


White blood cells help defend the body

White blood cells help defend the body

  • White blood cells function both inside and outside the circulatory system

    • They fight infections and cancer

Basophil

Eosinophil

Monocyte

Neutrophil

Lymphocyte

Figure 23.15


Platelets formation

Platelets Formation

Megakaryocytes and platelets


Blood clots plug leaks when blood vessels are injured

Blood clots plug leaks when blood vessels are injured

  • When a blood vessel is damaged, platelets respond

    • They help trigger the formation of an insoluble fibrin clot that plugs the leak

Figure 23.16B


Figure 23 13

1

Injury to lining of bloodvessel exposes connectivetissue; platelets adhere

2

Platelet plug forms

3

Fibrin clot trapsblood cells

Connectivetissue

Plateletplug

Platelet releases chemicalsthat make nearby platelets sticky

Clotting factors from:

Platelets

Calcium andother factorsin blood plasma

Damaged cells

Prothrombin

Thrombin

Fibrinogen

Fibrin

Figure 23.16A


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