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Chapter 6. Designing Structural Systems. Terminology. Structure – a body that will resist external forces without changing its shape, except for that due to the elasticity of the material.

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chapter 6

Chapter 6

Designing Structural Systems

terminology
Terminology
  • Structure – a body that will resist external forces without changing its shape, except for that due to the elasticity of the material.
  • Structural systems – systems in the natural and technological world that provide a means of stability and foundation for mobility.
natural structures
Natural Structures
  • Human Body
  • Beehives
  • Snail shells
  • Spider Webs
  • Ant Colonies (hills)
  • Termite trails
technological structures
Technological Structures
  • Bridges
  • Homes
  • Skyscrapers
  • Domes
  • Roads
  • Phones
  • Computer Cases
system failures
System Failures
  • Planned Obsolescence – the name given to the concept of planning the failure of a technological product after a certain amount of use.
  • Durable goods – products that are intended to last more than three years.
  • Non-durable goods - products that are designed to not last more than three years.
failures cont
Failures (cont.)
  • Safety Factor - determines how much a product or an element within a product is overbuilt.
forces on structures
Forces on structures
  • Static Loads – loads at rest.
  • Dynamic Loads – forces in motion.
  • Internal forces – the molecular makeup of a material to counter external forces.
  • External forces - loads that are applied to an object in question.
  • Equilibrium – when internal and external forces are equal.
stress and strain
Stress and strain
  • Stress – the strength of a material (when an object will fail or break).
  • Strain – the change in shape of a material caused by compression or tension forces (how far the material stretches under a load).
  • Young’s Modulus of elasticity - the measure of stress and strain of a material.
    • Elastic stage – point 0 to A where a material will change shape, but return to normal.
    • Plastic stage - point B, where a material will remain in its strained shape and not return to normal.
    • Breaking point – point C, where a material fails or breaks.
the five common forces
The Five Common Forces
  • Compression – The inward forces on an object (pressing down or in).
  • Tension – the outward forces on an object (the pulling apart of something).
  • Bending – when the forces are acting across the entire material (both compression and tension).
  • Shear – forces acting in opposite directions but in the same plane
  • Torsion – forces that try to twist a material apart.
structural components
Structural Components
  • Beams – Horizontal members that are designed to resist compression and bending forces. (fig. 6-20) pg 125.
  • Trusses and Girders – complex beam designs.
  • Struts – components that resist compression (piers and columns)
  • Ties – components that resist tension (cables or rigid steel elements).
  • Fasteners – Mechanical: rivets, bolts, screws and nails; chemical: welds and glues
calculating loads
Calculating Loads
  • Physical Models
  • Mathematical models
  • Computer models
  • Vector Analysis
  • Graphical Analysis
  • Bow’s Notation
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