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For each question: what did you learn from the workshops? What matters are still left unanswered?

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For each question: what did you learn from the workshops? What matters are still left unanswered?

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For each question: what did you learn from the workshops? What matters are still left unanswered?

What are the main observations or conclusions - for Europe, its regions and cities - in relation to “territorial cooperation, current challenges and opportunities for territorial development and good governance models”?

How do developments in Europe’s neighbourhood influence the territorial development in Europe and vice-versa?

What opportunities and challenges exists for Europe and its neighbourhood for increasing competitiveness through further cooperation and integration?

Summary of workshop results

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Question 1

Cooperation happens when people want it to happen;

Global scale links are Important for cities

Most cities have network links on different scales (some networks originate from proximity); proximity matters too – but which is more important? (depends on definition of ‘proximity’)

Second tier cities important; so are large global agglomerations

Europe2020 targets don’t add up territorially

A systemic approach is needed for territorial cohesion, because regional performance is relational

Summary of workshop results

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Network versus proximity

Most cities have network links on different scales (some networks originate from proximity);

proximity matters too – but which is more important? (depends on definition of ‘proximity’)

Summary of workshop results

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Cooperation: where (geographically and sectorally) to prioritize investments?
  • Depends on the specific policy goals at, e.g. regional level

Validity of data, e.g. when post-crisis data unavailable

What can territorial policy do and what is its added value?

  • Long-term perspective as regards solutions and sensitivity to local characteristics

Global openness: how important of a factor is this?

  • Not all regions have same potential for this; depends on regional characteristics

Is this discussion about boosting competitiveness or (territorial) cohesion?

Summary of workshop results

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How do developments in Europe’s neighbourhood influence the territorial development in Europe and vice-versa?

What is ‘the neighborhood’?

  • Artificial construct; in the common sense of the term, ‘neighborhood’ suggests some cohesiveness. But ‘EU neighborhood’ is too diverse to be a meaningful concept. [vote shows general agreement];
  • BUT: this is, in policy terms ‘a reality’ – applied policy scientists cannot dismiss concept that policymakers value. What territorial dimension can we link to this concept? On the other hand, can also challenge policy
  • Concept of borders can be used as a conceptual bridge between proximity and network (e.g. Iberia and South America). Borders can also be opportunities for new relationships, trust important. Proximity is also relative; technology has brought ‘spaces’ closer

And from the empirical evidence provided, what courses of action does this suggest?

Summary of workshop results

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How do developments in Europe’s neighbourhood influence the territorial development in Europe and vice-versa?

Is the neighborhood a form of territorial boosterism? On the other hand, why shouldn’t the Territorial Agenda not apply to our neighbors?

What are the functional regions of Europe that extend beyond EU borders?

  • Functional relationships with distant areas can be more important than adjacent countries; neighborhood policy not completely clear in terms of goals; But how much more does ESPON know, which can contribute to discussion?

Environmental sustainability is a potential argument for neighborhood policy; in addition, policy goals are open-ended/evolving. Can ESPON evidence be used for this? (maybe less evidence on borders than on connections, agglomerations, second-tier cities, global transport & logistics)

Summary of workshop results

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How do developments in Europe’s neighbourhood influence the territorial development in Europe and vice-versa?

What are the opportunities and threats of neighborhood for Europe?

But where does the border of the EU actually lie? Depends on the purpose

Definition of neighbor: immobility and interdependency, differing social values as regards how to treat neighbors, this anthropological dimension needs to be taken into account.

Macroregions exists because of functional relationships and territorial impact; center of EU is not Western Europe

Firms have differing global networks; depends on kind of economic activity; has territorial impacts e.g. polarization in Tunisia between coastal area and interior, but of course also impacts within EU

Summary of workshop results

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What opportunities and challenges exists for Europe and its neighbourhood for increasing competitiveness through further cooperation and integration?

Is the middle east a blind spot in the discussion?

Important of equal footing and synergy

Contribution of ESPON would be enhanced to neighborhood if key documents were translated into e.g. arabic or russian

Administrative constraints make a big difference. Territorially it would make sense to connect infrastructure to russia via Belarus instead of Lith.

Need better understanding of strategic crossing points of key infrastructure;

Need better understanding of remittances in discussion of migration

European social model difficult to sustain due to austerity measures, hardship especially high in rural areas, can ultimately affect indicators like life expectancy

Summary of workshop results

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What opportunities and challenges exists for Europe and its neighbourhood for increasing competitiveness through further cooperation and integration?

Why is a territorial approach to neighborhood necessary?

  • Because networks extend beyond Europe and impact European territory? ESPON needs to link up its research with the areas with which it interacts, e.g. looking at what businesses want (how they think, their motivations/strategy, etc), in addition to looking at territorial data.
  • Need different kinds of cooperation policies for different parts of neighborhood; this is because of local differences and personal relations
  • Qualitative research could enhance understanding of where value is added in networks and where and how innovations take place
  • Investments are territorially bound; mistakes have long-lasting implications. Quality of connections to locations (e.g. seaports) important for success of a region; cultural proximity

Summary of workshop results

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What opportunities and challenges exists for Europe and its neighbourhood for increasing competitiveness through further cooperation and integration?

Why is a territorial approach to neighborhood necessary?

  • Yes, given the example of Morocco: good strategy of territorial development (informed by European consultants), e.g. port facilities, infrastructure, etc. A result is the shifting of economic activities from Spain to Morocco. The same thing is happening with tourism. Rapid development in Morocco – is this competition an opportunity or a threat? There are strong cultural ties but tensions as well.
  • Neighborhood outside ESPON’s ‘comfort zone’ so extending territorial scope may help to overcome this.
  • If you want to discuss further: go to Cliff Hague’s blog and leave message

Summary of workshop results

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