Code switching in a network l.jpg
This presentation is the property of its rightful owner.
Sponsored Links
1 / 36

Code-switching in a network PowerPoint PPT Presentation


  • 67 Views
  • Uploaded on
  • Presentation posted in: General

Code-switching in a network. Richard Hudson Bangor February 2008. Linguists and psycholinguists. Different worlds, no shared models. We need a bridge. linguists. psycho-linguists. Lingualism. Monolingualism even monolinguals know about other languages Bilingualism Multilingualism

Download Presentation

Code-switching in a network

An Image/Link below is provided (as is) to download presentation

Download Policy: Content on the Website is provided to you AS IS for your information and personal use and may not be sold / licensed / shared on other websites without getting consent from its author.While downloading, if for some reason you are not able to download a presentation, the publisher may have deleted the file from their server.


- - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - E N D - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -

Presentation Transcript


Code switching in a network l.jpg

Code-switching in a network

Richard Hudson

Bangor February 2008


Linguists and psycholinguists l.jpg

Linguists and psycholinguists

Different worlds, no shared models

We need a bridge.

linguists

psycho-linguists


Lingualism l.jpg

Lingualism

  • Monolingualism

    • even monolinguals know about other languages

  • Bilingualism

  • Multilingualism

    • World record for societal multilingualism =

  • Hyperpolyglottism

    • World record for individual multilingualism =

?

6

72?

?


Theory l.jpg

Theory

  • How do monolinguals record knowledge about languages?

    • e.g. ‘Latin is dead’

  • How do linguals keep their languages separate?

    • e.g. ‘Dog is English, ci is Welsh’

  • How do these facts relate to language-structure?


Languages in the mind l.jpg

Languages in the mind

  • Each named language is a concept.

  • It’s part of general knowledge.

  • General knowledge is a network of concepts.

  • So each named language is a node.

  • And its properties are links to other nodes.


Latin is dead l.jpg

‘Latin is dead’

default

spoken by

language

community

‘isa’

0

Latin

exception


Word grammar l.jpg

Word Grammar

  • Language competence is a network too.

    • not a network of lexical items or constructions

    • nodes have no internal structure.

  • It’s just our (ordinary) knowledge of words.

  • So (1) it has no boundary.

  • So (2) activation spreads freely between language and non-language.


Spreading activation l.jpg

Spreading activation

  • Language must be a network because it carries spreading activation.

  • Evidence:

    • Priming: word 1 primes word 2 if they are network neighbours.

    • Speech errors: the substituted word is activated by accident from the target or context.


A priming experiment l.jpg

A priming experiment


On the screen no priming l.jpg

On the screen: no priming

lorry

fon

nurse

Delay:

0.9

0.8

0.8

Non-word

Word


Nurse primes doctor l.jpg

Nurse primes doctor.

doctor

fon

nurse

Delay:

0.9

0.8

0.6

Non-word

Word


Slide12 l.jpg

Why?


Priming at all levels l.jpg

Priming at all levels

Words prime network neighbours in:

  • Phonology: verse primes nurse (but only briefly)

  • Morphology: hedges primes hedge for longer than pledge does.

  • Syntax: Vlad brought a book to Boris primes other V + DO + PP sentences

  • Semantics: nurse primes doctor.


How activation spreads l.jpg

How activation spreads

  • Blindly – hence errors.

  • In any direction, depending on the target.

    • Speaking or listening or analysing or …

  • Randomly, so weak activation has a weak effect (rather than no effect)

    • because activation converges from many directions.


No boundaries l.jpg

No boundaries

  • Activation flows freely between language and non-language

  • Even speech errors may have non-linguistic causes

    • E.g. (By a computer) Do you have a

  • Choice of language is another example.

computer?

screwdriver?


Languages in a network l.jpg

Languages in a network

  • Each word has (‘belongs to’) a language.

  • Each language has a prototypical ‘word’.

  • Prototypical words are the domain of phonology.


Welsh and english l.jpg

Welsh and English

language

Welsh

English

language

language

English-word

Welsh-word

ci

thanks

diolch

dog


A language isn t a box l.jpg

A language isn’t a box.

Welsh

English

ci

diolch

dog

thanks


Pro network con boxes l.jpg

Pro network, con boxes

  • Translation equivalents in different languages prime one another.

    • e.g. ci primes dog.

  • So they must share meaning.

  • Likewise for phonological or graphological priming.

    • e.g. ci primes key or cipher.


Cross language links in a network l.jpg

Cross-language links in a network

Welsh-word

noun

English-word

ci

dog

key

sound

meaning

sound

meaning

/ki:/


Moreover l1 and l2 are unequal l.jpg

Moreover, L1 and L2 are unequal

  • Often, L2 was learned via L1

    • e.g. ‘Ci means dog’

  • So some L2 words are linked directly to L1 words by a ‘translation’ relation, but not vice versa.

  • This explains why L2 > L1 translation is faster and easier than L1 > L2 (Kroll & Dussias 2004).

  • But in time L2 becomes independent of L1.


The asymmetry of l1 and l2 l.jpg

The asymmetry of L1 and L2

L2-word

L1-word

translation

ci

dog

meaning


Language choice l.jpg

Language choice

  • Activation from meaning activates words in bothlanguages.

  • So how does a bilingual stick to one language when ‘in monolingual mode’?

  • Two suggestions so far (Costa 2004): Non-target language activation is:

    • inhibited.

    • ignored.

  • Both assume an external controller.


Code switching with external control l.jpg

Code-switching with external control

Welsh-word

English-word

suppress

or ignore

ci

dog

sound

sound

meaning

meaning

/ki:/

/dg/

winner?


External control l.jpg

External control?

  • Who is the external controller?

    • a ‘homunculus’?

    • problem: infinite regress.

  • What does ‘he’ control?

    • just language use?

  • If possible, avoid special external controls.


Code switching with internal control l.jpg

Code-switching with internal control

Welsh-word

English-word

ci

dog

sound

sound

meaning

meaning

/ki:/

/dg/

winner?


Two kinds of code switching l.jpg

Two kinds of code-switching

  • Situational or intra-sentential.

  • Bilingual speakers can stick to one language when the situation requires it

    • e.g. when speaking to a monolingual

  • How do they do it?

  • The situation keeps the ‘required language’ node active.


Speaking to a welsh speaker l.jpg

Speaking to a Welsh speaker

language

spoken by

Welsh

English

Welsh speakers

language-of

language-of

English-word

Welsh-word

addressee

ci

dog

current interaction


Intra sentential code mixing l.jpg

Intra-sentential code-mixing

  • Used only when speaking to bilinguals.

  • Bilinguals belong to both communities.

  • So the situation activates both languages.

  • e.g. (Eppler 2004)

    • und heuer fahren wir nach Harrogatefor a long-es weekend

    • die do-'nt mind aber I do .


Speaking to a welsh english bilingual l.jpg

Speaking to a Welsh-English bilingual

spoken by

spoken by

English speakers

English

Welsh speakers

Welsh

language-of

language-of

English-word

Welsh-word

addressee

dog

ci

current interaction


Random choice l.jpg

Random choice

  • Suppose each language is equally active.

  • So for each word each language is equally likely:

    • like tossing a coin, where each toss is independent of the previous one:

    • A A B A B B A A A B B A B B

  • But that’s not how code-mixing works.


Inertia prevails l.jpg

Inertia prevails

  • Words tend strongly to be in the same language if they are:

    • adjacent or

    • linked by a syntactic dependency.

  • Why does adjacency matter?

    • the previous language is still most active

  • Why does dependency matter?

    • the dependency link carries activation.


Why does the language tend to stay the same l.jpg

Why does the language tend to stay the same?

a concept

Lang B

Lang A

language

meaning

word 1

word 2

word 3

?

?

dependent

or head


Conclusion l.jpg

Conclusion

  • Language choice is governed by activation of:

    • a ‘required language’ node to match the addressee’s social category

    • the previous word

    • a syntactically related word

  • Language is integrated into the network of general knowledge.


The bridge is growing l.jpg

The bridge is growing

Computer model with numbers

linguistics

psycho-linguistics


Diolch yn fawr l.jpg

Diolch yn fawr

  • For this slide show:

    www.phon.ucl.ac.uk/home/dick/talks.htm#bangor

  • For more about hyperpolyglots etc:

    …dick/polyglotism/home.htm

  • For more about Word Grammar:

    …dick/wg.htm


  • Login