Anthaquinones. Active components of many crude drugs with purgative properties Colored compounds traditionally used as dyes Mostly glycosides (mainly glucosides or rhamnosides) Sugar residue is prerequisite for pharmacological effects 9,10-anthraquinone as basic st.
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Based on degree of oxidation status
In the biosynthesis of the anthraquinones for the formation of the poly-keto-methylene-chain : 1 acetyl CoA and 7 Malonyl CoA are used.
Important anthraquinones: OH at C-1 and C-8R at C-3: CH3………………ChrysophanolR at C-3: CH2OH………….Aloe-emodineR at C-3: COOH…………. RheinR at C-3: CH3 and at C-6 OH Frangula-emodineR at C-3: CH3 and at C-6 OCH3 Phycion
Liliaceae, Polygonaceae, Rhamnaceae, Rubiaceae, Fabaceae, Rutaceae
Animals produce anthraquinones e.g. cochineal insect
Dried bark of Rhamnuspurshiana(Rhamnaceae)
Aloin might be used for barbaloin
Best avoid aloin (ambiguous term)
Tannins of rhubarb responsible for mild activity
Raponticin: A stilbene glucoside from Rheum raponticum, R. undulatum; estrogenic action, treatment of menopausol symptoms; Alzheimer’s disease(?)